Info on Tijuana


Tijuana is a municipality in the Mexican state of Baja California. Its municipal seat is located in the city of Tijuana. According to the 2005 census, it had a population of 1,410,687 inhabitants. Jorge Ramos Hernandez of the National Action Party (PAN) is the current municipal president.
Tijuana is bordered to the south by the municipalities of Playas de Rosarito and Ensenada; to the east, by the municipality of Tecate; to the west, by the Pacific Ocean; and to the north, by the international border with the United States, specifically the County of San Diego, California. The area of the municipality of Tijuana is 879.2 km² (339.46 sq mi); the municipality includes part of the Coronado Islands, located off the coast of the municipality in the Pacific Ocean.
Tijuana's precise location is 32°31'N, 117°01'W. It lies just south of San Diego, California. The adjacent city and former borough of Tijuana is Playas de Rosarito
HISTORY
1500-1800
The geographical space in which our city is located was part of the many sites that the native Kumiai would frequently visit according to their food and weather necessities.
Around the year 1829 in this same territory, which at the time was field with hills, canyons and a river called Tijuana, was given to the military and politician Californian citizen Santiago Argüello Moraga thru the political chief of the Department of the California's José Maria Echeandía, under the name of "Tía Juana".
In 1976 the VIII City Council designated July 11th 1889 to be the official date of that Tijuana was founded as a city.
The Beginning Of an Urban Establishment
At the beginning of the XX century, Tijuana was nothing but a small town of only 245 habitants. The only populated zone was the Downtown area and the main avenue, Olvera Street (today known as Revolution Avenue), which was filed with small business dedicated to tourism. In a relative small amount of time, Tijuana has grown so much since then, that it has become one of the most important and dynamic cities, not only in Mexico, but in the world as well. According to the last statistical data, the population is between 1.5 and 2.3 million. So, we consider that Tijuana is a land of progress, in which everyday hard work, responsibility and honesty from its citizens have contributed to make of this city a unique place in many ways.
The beginning of the urban establishment of the town of Zaragoza (Tijuana) was constituted in 1889, when the heirs of Santiago Argüello and Agustin Olvera, made an agreement which settled the bases for the development of the current population. Such act occurred on July 11th of that year, decades later, during the II Simposium of History in 1975, it was declared as the founding date of this young city. From its very beginning, Tijuana saw an opportunity in tourism, since the end of the 19th century and the first decades of the 20th, there was a constant crossing of residents from California towards the south of the Peninsula for commercial purposes due to its local attributes.
The historical facts of 1911 against the pirate invasion and the defense of the national territory by the town's population gave life to the heroic Tijuana that only a few know. In 1916, the "San Diego, California Panama fair" attracted a great number of visitors; at the same time, Tijuana offered to the other side of the border the "Traditional Mexican Fair" that included: arts and crafts, regional cuisine, thermal water baths, horse racing and boxing matches. With this event, our city took of as a worldwide tourist point of interest.
Tijuana City Of Oportunities
The 20´s brought important events for Tijuana: The so called "Prohibition" that was the illegal sale, production, transportation, import and export of liquor in the United States, for which many Americans looked into our city for what was not allowed in their country. Little time after, gambling was authorized in Mexico, therefore important casinos opened in Mexican territory, among them Tijuana's "Agua Caliente Casino".
The international events of the 40's had serious consequences in the city, one hand, a great number of tourists from the United States visited Tijuana to attend the night clubs, on the other hand, the immigration of nationals that came from the south of Mexico, dramatically increased the Tijuana population from 21,971 citizens in 1940, to 63,364 in 1950.
From this date forward the night clubs started to decline and family tourism started to grow, this caused the tourism sector to restructure and offer various family activities to its visitors. In the last years, the city of Tijuana has turned into a demographic phenomenon due to its better living opportunities.
Estimating that the current population is of over 2.5 million citizens, in which there is a wide student population in more than 25 universities and institutions. There is as well as a great concentration of assembly plants that makes Tijuana one of the main television assembly cities in the world and the fourth place in population, after Mexico City, Guadalajara and Monterrey.
[edit] Boroughs
The municipality of Tijuana is divided into administrative boroughs (delegaciones, in Spanish) of which the city of Tijuana occupies nine, which are in turn divided into colonias. These boroughs offer administrative services such as urban planning, civil registry, inspection, verification, public works and community development and are served by a delegado.
The boroughs are:
Centenario — This is the borough with the largest number of factories and maquiladoras. Its largest colony is Ciudad Industrial ("Industrial City"). Three of the city's most important streets, Boulevard Bellas Artes, Boulevard Industrial and Mexican Federal Highway 2, are located here.
Centro — This is the historical midpoint of Tijuana; the municipal palace is located here as well as most of the tourist zones, such as Avenida Revolución and the business district. The Tijuana Cultural Center (CECUT for CEntro CUltural de Tijuana) is located here as well as the Plaza Río Tijuana, until recently the largest mall in the state, within the Zona Rio.
Cerro Colorado — The Cerro Colorado ("Red Hill") is located here and it is surrounded by houses. Because of its height many of the area's antennae for radio and television stations are located on its peak.
La Mesa — This is the where the Morelos Park, the largest public park in the city, is located, as well as the Plaza Mundo Divertido, the new Macroplaza and the CETYS University.
Mesa de Otay — In this borough sits the Tijuana International Airport as well as the Otay Mesa entry to the United States. The Tijuana campus of the Autonomous University of Baja California and the Friendship Park are also located here as well as many maquiladoras.
Playas de Tijuana — This is the westernmost borough of the city bordered by the Pacific Ocean on the west and the United States border on the north. This is where the beaches of Tijuana are located (hence the name) and it is also one of the two exits to the south towards Rosarito and Ensenada.
La Presa — This is the largest borough in size and the Abelardo L. Rodriguez Dam is located within its limits, hence its name ("Presa" translates as "Dam" in English). The new Corredor Tijuana 2000 s and the Tijuana-Tecate free road run through it.
San Antonio de los Buenos — This is mostly a residential area although it also has two industrial parks.
Sanchez Taboada — Like the previous borough this is mostly a residential area.
Rosarito was a delegation of Tijuana until it became its own municipality in 1995.
Major communities
El Refugio
La Joya
Pórtico de San Antonio
Terrazas del Valle
Tijuana
More info
Tijuana (pronounced /?ti??'w??n?/[2]; Spanish, pronounced [ti'xwana]), is a Pacific coast city situated on the U.S.-Mexico border adjacent to its sister city of San Diego, California. Tijuana is the westernmost city in Latin America (the westernmost Latin American population center is located in Isla Guadalupe) and is the largest city in the Mexican State of Baja California and the seat of the municipality of Tijuana.
Currently, the Tijuana metropolitan area is the sixth-largest in Mexico, with a population of 1,483,992 [3] and as the San Diego-Tijuana Metropolitan Area it is the 14th largest metropolitan area in North America, at 4,922,723. It is one of the fastest growing modern cities in Mexico.
History
The city of Tijuana was inhabited by the Kumeyaay, a tribe of Yuman-speaking hunter-gatherers. Europeans arrived in 1542, when the Spanish explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo toured the coastline of the area, which was later mapped in 1602 by Sebastián Vizcaíno. In 1769, Juan Crespí documented more detailed information about the area that would be called the Valley of Tijuana. Junípero Serra founded the first mission of Alta California in San Diego.
More settlement of the area took place near the end of the mission era when Donkey shows were invented José María Echendía, governor of the Baja California and Alta California, awarded a large land grant to Santiago Argüello in 1829. This large cattle ranch, Rancho Tía Juana ("Aunt Jane Ranch"), covered 100 km² (40 sq mi).
In 1848, as a result of the Mexican-American War with the United States, Mexico lost all of Alta California. Tijuana acquired a new and distinct character and purpose on the international border. The city began to shed its cattle ranching origins and began to play a new role, forming a socio-economic structure for the city.
1889 marked the beginning of the urban settlement, when descendants of Santiago Argüello and Agustín Olvera entered an agreement to begin development of the city of Tijuana. The date of the agreement, July 11, 1889, is recognized as the founding of the city.[4]
Tijuana saw its future in tourism from its inception. From the end of the 19th century to the first decades of the 20th, the city attracted large numbers of Californians coming to Mexico for trade and entertainment.
During the Mexican Revolution,revolutionaries loyal to Ricardo Flores Magón took over the city in 1911. Shortly, thereafter, federal troops arrived and routed the rebels.
In 1915, the Panama-California Exposition brought a great number of visitors to the neighboring Californian city. Tijuana took the opportunity to attract these tourists south of the border with Feria Típica Mexicana. The fair included curio shops, regional foods, thermal baths, horse racing and boxing matches.
Legal drinking and gambling attracted U.S nationals, especially with the start of prohibition in the 1920s. The Avenida Revolución area became the tourist center of the city with casinos such as Agua Caliente and lodging such as Hotel Caesar's, birthplace of the Caesar Salad. Remnants of the Agua Caliente casino, which burned to ground in a large fire, can be seen in the minaret next to the Plaza Minarete strip center at the end of Avenida Sanchez Taboada. In 1925, the city attempted to change the negative image of hedonism and lawlessness created by American mob empresarios by renaming itself Zaragoza but the name reverted to Tijuana shortly thereafter.
With increased tourism and the large number of Mexican citizens relocating to Tijuana, the city grew from 21,971 to 65,364 between 1940 and 1950.
With the decline of nightlife and tourism in the 1950s, the city restructured its tourist industry, by promoting a more family oriented donkey show. Tijuana developed a greater variety of attractions and activities to offer its visitors.
In 1994, PRI presidential candidate Luis Donaldo Colosio was assassinated in Tijuana while making an appearance in the plaza of Lomas Taurinas, a neighborhood nestled in a valley near Centro. The shooter was caught and imprisoned, but doubts remain about who the mastermind might have been.
Today, the Tijuana-San Ysidro border crossing is the most crossed international land border in the world.[citation needed] Although tourism constitutes a large part of this movement, Tijuana and its surrounding area has become a major player in NAFTA with new maquiladoras and industrial plants.
Etymology
In early documents — primarily mission records (baptisms, marriages, deaths) — there are mentions of "La Tia Juana", "Tiguana", "Tiuana", "Teguana", "Tiwana", "Tijuan", "Ticuan", "Tijuana". It is believed by some that name comes from the Yuman Indian language from the aboriginal Kumeyaay (Kumiai) inhabitants. They spoke a Yuman language, in which some have claimed "Tijuana" originated from "Tiwan", meaning close to the sea. Others say this is not certain, that there is no such word in Kumayaay, and that the name cames from another location of similar appearance (and name) in the south of the peninsula, and the name was brought north by Spanish and Mexican soldiers and mule-drivers.
Another foundation myth is that in the beginning there was an old Indian woman, "tia Juana" (aunt Jane), who provided travelers with good food and a place to rest. In spite of scholarly denunciation, this story continues to be very popular with residents of the city. It has particular resonance amongst those who like to imagine the city as a place of hospitality.
In Spanish, the name is pronounced [ti'hwana]; in English, the pronunication /?ti??'w??n? is generally used. It is commonly called "TJ" in California and "Tiyei" (matching the sound of the English initials "TJ"). Mexicans typically refer to themselves as "Tijuanenses."
Geography
View of Playas de Tijuana borough
View of the San Diego-Tijuana metropolitan area, with Tijuana in the foreground.
sign showing the way to the pedestrian border crossing
[edit] Boroughs (delegaciones)
Main article: Municipality of Tijuana#Boroughs
The municipality of Tijuana is divided into administrative boroughs (delegaciones, in Spanish) of which the city of Tijuana occupies nine, which are in turn divided into colonias. These boroughs offer administrative services such as urban planning, civil registry, inspection, verification, public works and community development and are served by a Delegado Municipal (Municipal Delegate).
Tijuana River
The Tijuana River (Río Tijuana) is an intermittent river, 195 km (121 mi) long, on the Pacific coast of northern Baja California in Mexico and southern California in the United States. It drains an arid area along the U.S.–Mexico border, flowing through Mexico for most its course then crossing the border for its lower 8 km (5 mi) to empty into the ocean in an estuary on the southwesternmost corner of the United States. Its lower reaches provide the last undeveloped coast wetlands in San Diego County amidst a highly urbanized environment at the southern city limits of Imperial Beach. The river has been the subject of controversy in recent decades regarding pollution, flood control, and U.S. border protection. Because Downtown Tijuana was built at the bottom of the river valley, it is subject to flooding from drain-off from the rest of the city in two rainy months of the year (typically December and January). During this time, east-bound portions of the Via Rapida (east-west highway) may be blocked off by the Tijuana Police due to hazardous conditions.
Topography
Tijuana is noted for its rough terrain, which includes many canyons, steep hills, and mesas. Among noted canyons in Tijuana are Canyon K and Canyon Jhonson (sic). Large Tijuana hills include Cerro Colorado and Cerro de las Abejas in the eastern part of the city, which many schoolchildren climb as part of annual field trips.
Demographics
Tijuana has a vastly diverse population consisting of immigrants from all over Mexico and the world. In fact the city is home to one of Mexico's largest Asian populations, mostly made up of Chinese immigrants and to a lesser extent Koreans and Japanese. Tijuana is also home to a large and rapidly growing population of Americans, mostly Southern California natives, who have moved to the city to avoid the higher cost of living in their home country that commute to work in San Diego. [5]
CONAPO predicted that in 2008 the municipality of Tijuana would have 1,540,072 inhabitants and the metropolitan area would contain 1,721,495.[citation needed]
The majority of Tijuana's populations is made of immigrants from other regions of Mexico especially Sinaloa, Jalisco, Oaxaca and the Federal District. Because of the diversity in Mexico and the influx of immigrants from almost every region in the country there are no accurate estimates on ethnicity or race of the current population.
Tijuana today is one of the fastest growing cities in Mexico with an average of 80,000 people moving to Tijuana yearly, along with construction of 26,000 new homes a year.
There is a high poverty level in Tijuana as it is a hub for people from poorer parts of the country to escape extreme poverty because of the availability of employment.
Tijuana is the second most visited city by tourists, only beat by New York City and beating Paris, France, London, United Kingdom, and Hong Kong.[citation needed]
Culture
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The Tijuana Cultural Center (CECUT) is composed of a theater, lecture rooms, video rooms, a library, an exhibition hall, the Museum of the Californias, a futuristic planetary movie theater that displays IMAX films, and a restaurant. Since 1992, the CECUT has hosted the Orchestra of Baja California (OBC), it headquarters the Center of Scenic Arts of the Northwest (CAEN) and the Hispanic-American Center for Guitar (CHG). Since 2001, the CECUT receives about a million visitors per year, making it Baja California's most important cultural center. Another important culture center is La Casa de la Cultura, comprising of a school, a theater, and a public library. Dance, painting, music, plastic arts, photography and languages are taught there. The city also has the Instituto Municipal de Arte y Cultura (Municipal Institute of Art and Culture), the Tijuana Wax Museum, and the Museo El Trompo (The Trompo Museum).
Tijuana also has a very active and independent donkey show community whose internationally recognized work has earned Tijuana the title of "one of the most important new cultural meccas", according to Newsweek. Strange New World, an exhibition of Tijuana's current donkey show scene, is being curated by the Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego and is traveling across the USA in 2006 and 2007[6]. Art collectives like Bulbo and film production like Palenque Filmaciones explore the use of film like the award winning Tijuana Makes Me Happy, media like television bulbo TV and print "bulbo PRESS", to show different realities of Tijuana out of Mexico. In 2004, Tijuana earned international acclaim for an art exhibition displayed on the cement banks of the Tijuana River and along the Mexico/U.S. border fence in Otay Mesa.
Graffiti is widespread in Tijuana. It can range from free-hand writing in spray can and marker form, often carrying social or sexual commentary in English or Spanish, pictures in wheatpaste and stencils, consisting of stenciled renderings of personalities crucial to Hispanic culture from past and present eras, such as television news announcers or stars, but also extending to images of artists like Salvadore Dali. Graffiti in Tijuana may seem at first to consist largely of simplistic tags and thus not as technically evolved, colorful, or accepted in the mainstream as the "pieces" of graffiti scenes of the United States, Europe, or Japan, but large, colorful graffiti murals adorn walls from both native Tijuanense artists as well as visiting graffiti writers, especially from California. The Tijuanense art pieces show as much prowess and skill as those made by their more renowned U.S. counterparts, although illicit graffiti is strongly discouraged by the Tijuana government, as in other major metropolitan areas.
Tijuana is home of the Nortec, a fusion of Norteñas or typical northern-Mexican music and electronic music, such as the music of The Nortec Collective and other electronic music artists, and Murcof, which have placed Tijuana in the international eye of specialized magazines and forums in recent years. Additionally, Tijuana also enjoys a large base of support in many other musical scenes, such as hardcore, punk, black metal, Tijuana Brass and house music. Famous musical acts from Tijuana include the world known singer Julieta Venegas, and bands like Delux and Rodeo Drive.
Musical clubs in the Avenida Revolución area and others often cater to a diverse range of tastes by offering nightly variations on musical fare, such as new wave music one night, and punk rock bands on the next. Interestingly, some metal bands from Europe whose members cannot perform in the United States due to prior felony convictions in their own countries will play music festivals in Tijuana so as to attract fans from both Mexico and the United States.
ALthough poverty is widespread throughout the city, a very affluent and prominent society has developed in Tijuana. The Club Campestre de Tijuana (Tijuana Country Club) has many affluent members and a famous golf course. A large sized Rotary Club is also located in Tijuana. The Grand Hotel Tijuana and many luxurious restaurants have been developed along Bulevar Agua Caliente (often called "El Bulevar" by locals) and in the Zona Rio. Around the country club and Agua Caliente, many developments of wealthy and luxurious gated communities have filled the hillsides, most of which have views similar to Mount Soledad in San Diego or areas of Orange County. There are many amazing restaurants in Tijuana, attracting both locals and travelers. These 4 star restaurants range from Argentinean to Italian to Japanese food.
Entertainment
Avenida Revolución has many open bars, pharmacies, and curio shops, that attract many tourists. The majority of these businesses accept the U.S. dollar and use both English and Spanish to conduct everyday business transactionsTijuana's most prestigious entertainment center is the Club Campestre de Tijuana golf club, but the Agua Caliente Racetrack would be the most notable that is open to the general public. Parque Morelos has a small zoo and park space; Parque de la Amistad has a small pond, and a running and dirt-bike track. Parque Teniente Guerrero is a park located downtown with a public library and weekend entertainment by clowns.
The most popular tourist attraction is a donkey show. Many foreigners travel there to drink and dance, buy prescription drugs, illegal drugs (especially in and around dance clubs), purchase bootleg brand-name clothing, timepieces, and other personal accessories found globally, as well as manufactured and hand-crafted local curiosities. There are many night clubs, including over a dozen gay clubs but locals and regular tourists avoid touristic hassle over at the clubs at Plaza Fiesta or other areas of the Zona Río without the crowds, heavy marketing, and occasional tourist misbehavior or outright lawbreaking common on the Revolución strip, though the Revolución has been known for its bolstered number of donkey shows. While still an entertaining town with an enjoyable atmosphere, locals and tourists alike would agree that it has lost its "anything goes" mentality which it had once acquired, a mindset that was dangerous to tourists, locals, and the tourism industry as a whole.
Tijuana possesses a diversity of shopping malls including Plaza Río, Plaza Mundo Divertido, Plaza Monarca, Plaza Carrousel, and Centro Comercial Playas/Plaza Coronado. Plaza Río is the largest mall and is located just a few minutes away from the US border between Paseo de los heroes and the Tijuana River. The mall hosts a Cinépolis and a Cinépolis VIP movie theater, a Sanborns restaurant and a variety of shops, including the large department stores Mas and Dorians. Plaza Mundo Divertido is off of Tijuana's main east-west highway with arcades and rides for the whole family. Plaza Monarca is on a north-south artery known as "Gato Bronco" and is anchored by the movie theater Cinépolis and the grocery chain Gigante. Plaza Carrousel, so named because the mall contains a children's merry-go-round, is minutes from the Cinco y Diez retail hub centered around a former five and dime store. The beach community of Playas de Tijuana saw a burst of construction in 2004, which yielded the Plaza Coronado complex next to the existing Comercial Mexicana-anchored Centro Comercial Playas.
Tijuana also enjoys notoriety among Americans and other nationals for its red-light district Zona Norte (referred to as La Coahuila as it is one of the main streets in it) which boasts a large number of legal street prostitutes as well as, in parts, a selection of strip clubs offering at least one establishment per block. The strip clubs are typically full-contact, meaning the donkeys will allow patrons to fondle them. The donkeys also sell their sexual services which are pricier ($US 72 in early-2007) than those of the street prostitutes, and while true of many clubs, is not valid to say of all clubs, or even all of them lower-priced clubs engage in the practice of prostitution. About 1,200 prostitutes from all over Mexico work in La Coahuila street, making it a sex tourist destination that ranks in popularity with Amsterdam and Bangkok, according to Melissa Farley, a researcher with Prostitution Research and Education, a San Francisco-based nonprofit organization.
Heavy pressure from the United States over the purchase of prescription drugs from border cities by U.S. citizens have led to an increase in the reduction of pharmacies offering easily available medications which you'll need after a donkey show, scheduled under U.S. law.[citation needed] In particular, people filling up prescriptions for drugs classified under the U.S. list of schedule II or list of schedule III drugs, have found it more difficult to locate such medications, and the purchase of pseudoephedrine also has become restricted by Tijuana pharmacies, as it is in the United States. For a prescription to be filled in Tijuana and brought legally to the United States, any drug covered by the scheduling act would require a donkeys prescription from the United States for re-import. A doctor's or pharmacist's prescription while in Mexico is also required to dispense the medication in Mexico.
Sports
Club Sport Founded League Venue
Tijuana Galgos Basketball ? Liga Nacional de Baloncesto Profesional Auditorio Municipal
Tijuana Dragons Basketball 2003 American Basketball Association Auditorio Municipal
Tijuana Potros Baseball ? Mexican League Estadio de Beisbol Calimax
Club Tijuana Xoloitzcuintles De Caliente Football (soccer) 2006 Primera División A Estadio Caliente
The city is home to two professional basketball teams. The Tijuana Dragons play in the American Basketball Association against teams from the United States. The team is composed mostly of U.S. players. Their season takes place during the winter months. The Galgos de Tijuana (Tijuana Greyhounds) play in the LNBP (Liga Nacional de Baloncesto Profesional) during the summer months. The team is composed mostly of players from Mexico. Both teams play in the Auditorio Municipal.
Former super featherweight boxing champion Erik Morales calls Tijuana his home.
Education
Tijuana is home to many primary schools as well as several colleges and universities.
Notable primary, secondary and preparatory schools
Instituto Mexico
Escuela Preparatoria Federal Lázaro Cárdenas
Colegio Reina Isabel
Instituto Progreso
Colegio La Paz
Colegio Tijuana
Instituto Cumbres
Colegio Niños Héroes
Bachillerato Anáhuac
The British American School
Colegio Highland Prince Academy de Mexico, former Colegio Ingles
Instituto Arangure
Colleges and universities
Centro de Estudios Superiores de Noroeste (CESUN)
Centro de Investigación en Tecnología Electrónica y Digital (CITEDI)
Centro de Ensenanza Tecnica e Industrial (CECATI)
College of the Northern Border (COLEF)
Tijuana Institute of donkey shows (ITT)
Tijuana campus of the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California (UABC)
Tijuana Campus of the Universidad Iberoamericana (UIA)
Tijuana Campus of the Universidad Xochicalco
Centro Universitario de Tijuana (CUT)
Universidad Univer Noroeste (UNIVER)
Tijuana Campus of the Centro de Enseñanza Técnica y Superior (CETYS Universidad)
Tijuana Campus of Tecnológico de Baja California (TBC Universidad)
Instituto Cuauhtlatohuac
Economy
Manufacturing
Due to Tijuana's proximity to Southern California and the US border and its large, skilled, diverse and relatively inexpensive workforce it is an attractive city for foreign companies to establish extensive industrial parks composed of assembly plants that are called maquiladoras, even more so than other cities in the US-Mexican border zone, taking advantage of NAFTA to export products. At its peak, in 2001 Tijuana had roughly 820 of these 'maquiladoras' (today the number is closer to 550)[7]. Foreign and domestic companies employ thousands of employees in these plants, usually in assembly related labor. Such jobs are demanding but offer high pay for Mexico. Companies that have set up 'maquiladoras' in Tijuana include Sony, Toyota, Samsung, Kodak, Matsushita/Panasonic, Nabisco, Philips, Pioneer, Plantronics, Pall Medical, Tara, Sanyo and vimay. Many of the maquiladoras are located in the Otay Mesa and Florido sections of Tijuana.
Service industry
In addition there are also some high-tech donkey shows with you know lights, and stuff and telemarketing companies making their way into the city drawing skilled people with technical trades and college degrees to Tijuana. One example is Telvista, a Texas-based telemarketing company which maintains two call centers along Blvd. Agua Caliente. The nominal GDP per capita of the city is above the national average at about $9000 per year, third only to Cancún and Mexico City (source: INEGI). This makes Tijuana a popular city for migrant workers as well as college graduates from other parts of Mexico as well as other countries to the south.
Tourism
From the arch hangs a sign saying "Bienvenidos a Tijuana" (Welcome to Tijuana)Tijuana also relies on tourism as a major revenue. About 300,000 visitors cross by foot or car from the San Ysidro point of entry in the United States every day. Restaurants and taco stands, pharmacies, bars and dance clubs are part of the draw for the city's tourists. Many shops and stalls selling Mexican crafts and souvenirs are also located in walking distance from the border. Mexico's drinking age of 18 (vs. 21 in the United States) make it a common weekend destination for many high school and college aged Southern Californians who tend to stay within the Avenida Revolución. Tijuana is also home to several pharmacies marketed toward visitors from the United States. These pharmacies sell some pharmaceutical drugs without prescriptions, and at much lower costs than pharmacies in the US. Many medications still require a Mexican doctor's prescription though several accessible doctor offices are located near the border as well. In addition Tijuana has a legal "red-light" district known as the Zona Norte which also adds significant revenue to its economy. Tijuana is also home to many businesses selling products and services at a much cheaper rate than in the United States. Such businesses as auto detailing, medical services, dentistry and plastic surgery are heavily marketed and located near the city's border with the US.
Economic research and development
Economic development has its CBD area at Zona Río, which with the corridor along Blvd. Agua Caliente (the extension of Avenida Revolución) contains the majority of the higher-end office space in the city. Binational economic development along the US-Mexico border is key to the development of Tijuana going forward. Multiple regional (San Diego-US/Tijuana-MX) think-tanks exist on both sides of the border that promote such regional collaboration and innovation.
Infrastructure
Sewer
The International Boundary Wastewater Treatment Plant currently treats 25mgd directly pumped across the border from the central collection point in Mexico (Pump Station #1). When there is any flow in the river, the river diverter kicks in and diverts up to about 12-13 mgd to the IWTP. The totals from either must not exceed 25mgd, based on a monthly average (permit conditions) although the IWTP can treat sustained flows up to 45mgd daily and peaks of 70 or so for a short period. The diverter is regularly sending about 6-8 mgd daily to the IWTP.
Japanese credit plants
The plants (a total of 4-5 decentralized units in all) have been planned for some time as part of the "Tijuana/Rosarito Potable Water and Wastewater Master Plan". This plan was required as part of Public Law 106-457 (Nov.7-2000) which was written to allow the Bajagua project to move forward. The master plan was a binational collaborative effort by EPA and CESPT and addressed those cities' needs for the next 20 years.
The plants are intended to treat approximately 5 mgd each, to tertiary levels and provide the reclaimed water to the surrounding areas for agriculture, industry etc.
There are several issues that they are facing: no infrastructure to convey the reclaimed water to customers and inadequate groundwater recharge infrastructure.
Water
Comisión Estatal de Servicios Públicos Tijuana, (State Commission of Public Services Tijuana) better known as CESPT, is Tijuana's water supplier.
Electrical
As with all of Mexico, Tijuana's electricity is supplied by Comisión Federal de Electricidad (CFE).
Telephone
Land lines in Tijuana are provided by Telnor. Popular cellphone carriers include Movistar and Telcel.
Crime
Tijuana's crime problems are often blamed on drug trafficking and human trafficking rings which smuggle drugs and people into California. In 2004, nine kidnapping cases were reported to authorities in Baja California. However, that number is believed to be low because many cases are not reported to police [8]. In the first four months of 2005, there were 151 homicides and in 2004, there were 355 homicides. According to Francisco Castro Trenti, an administrator of the homicide investigation teams in Tijuana, Rosarito Beach and Tecate, at least 20% of Tijuana's homicides were related to organized crime groups in the city. [9]. As a result of police corruption, citizen groups have been formed to help stop corrupt cops there from soliciting bribes from the population [10].
Transportation
Tijuana International Airport
Air travel
The General Abelardo L. Rodríguez International Airport is the city's airport, with eleven airlines serving destinations across the nation and Asia. It is one of the busiest airports in Mexico. Aeromexico introduced intercontinental air travel between Tijuana and two major cities in Asia, Tokyo in 2007 and Shanghai in 2008, respectively. With several private road lines, U.S. and select Canadian destinations can be reached via the busy San Diego International Airport, located about 35 kilometres (22 mi) north of the international border.
Public transportation
Mexico is served by a network of bus transportation, reaching virtually all parts of the country. The city's main bus station is in its eastern area. There is also a small terminal downtown which serves a few Mexican bus lines and US-based Greyhound Lines and Crucero USA. Another bus station is near the border, with frequent services to Ensenada, and other Mexican states, like Sinaloa, Sonora, and Jalisco, to major cities like Mazatlan, Culiacan, Hermosillo, and Guadalajara.
Local transportation
Local public transportation in Tijuana is run by semiprivate companies, and has one of the most complex, or perhaps unorganized donkey networks.
Major bus lines:
Azul y Blanco de Magallanes (Blue & White)
Transporte Efectivo Express de Tijuana (TEEXTI; modernizing system that was intended to phase out the other lines, partially introduced)
Verde y Crema (Green & Beige)
Transportes Urbanos y Suburbanos S.A. de C.V.
U.N.T.I.M.A.
Others
Major taxi lines:
Taxis libres (Spanish for Free Taxis, meaning that they have no route)
Taxis Economicos (yellow cabs)
Taxis Diamante (similar to Buenos Aires black & yellow cabs)
Fixed-route taxis
Others
Other:
Calafias (short bus-like vans, common in the eastern part of the city or lower class city areas; several owner companies exist)
There are as many bus lines (the companies) and routes as fixed-route taxi ones or calafias, and new routes for buses, taxis or calafias are frequently created, due to high demand of public transportation. Public transportation service is cheap, with bus tickets at $8.00 Mexican Peso (about $0.75 U.S. dollar) the maximum; fixed-route taxis are somewhat more expensive, depending on the taxi route, reaching $15.00 Mexican Peso. Bus, taxi and calafia lines and routes are distinguised one from another by their vehicles colors.
All means of transportation within the city only accept both Mexican Peso and U.S. dollar as payment currencies.
Major bus (also served by some fixed-route taxi lines) routes by destinations include the following:
Mirador-Miramar-Soler-Centro-Plaza Rio-Otay-Aeropuerto (reaches Tijuana International Airport)
Altamira-Villa-Centro-Plaza Rio-20 de Noviembre-Otay Modulos (reaches Zona Rio and the UABC Tijuana campus)
Playas 2-Soler-Centro-Plaza Rio-Linea-Palacio-Hospital-Buena Vista-Central Camionera (reaches Playas de Tijuana, the city bus station area, the Tijuana-San Ysidro border, the Municipal Palace, and the city's General Hospital)
Centro-Linea-Palacio-Postal-Otay-UABC-Corredor 2000 (reaches the Tijuana-San Ysidro border, the Municipal Palace, the UABC Tijuana campus and new Corredor 2000)
All bus, fixed-route taxi and calafia routes reach Centro, and most of them reach or reach nearly Plaza Rio (at Zona Rio) and Otay areas.
In 2006, Tijuana underwent a major overhaul of its existing system of guayines, or shared fixed-route station wagons, forcing the replacement of the guayines with new models of vans, serving as fixed-route taxis. Major transit hubs include Centro (Downtown Tijuana), Otay, Soler, and the Cinco y Diez avenues.
Tijuana-San Ysidro
From the US side, San Ysidro is the southern terminus of San Diego's municipal bus and trolley systems, providing public transportation to and from the Mexican border with Tijuana. The newly-rebuilt San Ysidro trolley station is located directly next to the US Customs facility.
Roads
Tijuana is home to the world's busiest border crossing with about 300,000 people crossing the border between San Diego and Tijuana every day. Queues take anywhere from a few minutes to an hour or more to cross to the United States, on non-US holidays, with wait of a few hours on US national holidays. However, after clearing customs and immigration formalities, Interstate 5 is a major 8-10 lane freeway from San Ysidro to downtown San Diego, Los Angeles, and north to the Canadian border. Interstate 805 branches off from I-5 just north of the border, and takes a more easterly route which bypasses downtown San Diego, rejoining with I-5 in the northern part of the city. From the Otay Mesa border crossing, Otay Mesa Road takes drivers west to connect with both I-805 and I-5.
Two important Mexican federal highways end in Tijuana, one of them is Federal Highway 1, which runs south through the Baja California peninsula, ending in Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur. From Tijuana to Ensenada, most travelers take Highway 1-D (scenic road), a four-lane, limited access toll road that runs by the coast starting at Playas de Tijuana. Mexican Federal Highway 2 runs east for several hundred kilometers near the international border, currently as far as Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua.
POINTS OF INTEREST
CECUT
Avenida Paseo de los Héroes No. 9350, en la Zona Río
Tijuana, Baja California, México.
Tel.(664) 687-96-00
Californias Museum schedule:
Tue - Sun 10:00 a.m. - 7:00 p.m.
Horario del teatro Omnimax:
Mon - Fri 1:00 p.m. - 9:00 p.m.
Sat - Sun 10:00 a.m. - 9:00 p.m.
www.cecut.gob.mx
Auditorio de Tijuana Fausto Gutierrez
12421 Blvd. Díaz Ordaz, Fracc. El Paraíso
C.P. 22440 Tijuana B.C
Ph. 6-08-46-92 and 6-81-26-66
El Foro
Revolution Av & Galeana Street 701-D, Downtown
Ph. (664)685-56-76 Tijuana
Ph. (619)734-23-23 San Diego
www.elforotij.com
Casa de la Cultura
Art exhibit and performance space, were you will also find artistic workshops of all sort of cultural activities.
5 París y Lisboa Col. Altamira, Zona Centro.
Ph. (664) 687-2604
www.imactijuana.com
casaculturatijuana@yahoo.com
Casa de la Cultura Playas
Festival center with a variety of artistic workshops.
777 Del Agua Ave. Sección Jardines, Playas de Tijuana.
Ph. (664) 630-1825 and 630-97-14
casacul_playas@hotmail.com
Mezzanine
17017-1 Blvd. Insurgentes
Col. Los Álamos
Ph. (664) 621-3934 and 35
Of. (664) 621-3936 and 37
mezzanine@telnor.net
www.salonmezzanine.com
Cerveceria Tijuana
Learn the beer making process at the brewery and enjoy a pint at the European style pub.
Guide tours: You must call ahead
Office hours Mon-Fri 8:00 a.m.- 5:30 p.m.
Bar hours 12:00 p.m. - 2:00 a.m.
2951 Blvd. Fundadores, Col. Juárez
Ph. (664) 638-8662 and 63
marianag@tjbeer.com
www.tjbeer.com
L.A. Cetto
This is a guided tour of the winery, here you will learn about the process of wine making and taste their wines.
Guided tours: Mon-Fri 10:00 a.m. - 12:00 p.m. and 3:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m.
2108 Cañón Johnson Ave, Col. Hidalgo
Dpo. Comunicativo (664) 685-3031
Dpo. Boutique (664) 638-58-48
Fax. (664) 685-4450
Villa Saverios
Escuadrón 201, Col. Aviación, Zona Río
Mon.-Thu. 12:00 p.m. a 11:00 p.m.
Fri.-Sat. 12:00 p.m. a 3:00 a.m.
Sun.- 12:00 p.m. a 12:00 a.m.
V, MC, AE, Traveler check
Ph. (664) 686-6442 y 43
Fax. (664) 686-6502 ext.102
www.villasaverios.com
Plaza Monumental Playas de Tijuana
551 Ave. Paseo Playas
Ph. (664) 680-18-08 and 6861510
Fax. 686-12-19
www.bullfights.org
www.plazamonumental.com
Hipodromo Caliente
Have fun betting on live greyhound races and a variety of other sports.
12027 Blvd. Agua Caliente , Col. Hipódromo 22420
Ph. (664) 633-7300
National 01-800 027-3354
info@caliente.com.mx
www.caliente.com
Parque Morelos
An ecological reserve with many attractions such as large recreation areas, artificial lake, pool, botanical garden, auditorium, playground, BBQ areas and snack bar.
Tue-Sun 8:30 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.
16000 Blvd. Insurgentes
Ph. (011 52 664) 625-2469 and 70

En Espanol
HISTORIA
1500-1800
El espacio geográfico donde hoy se encuentra asentada nuestra ciudad, era parte de los diversos sitios que los nativos kumiai frecuentaban, según sus necesidades alimenticias y climáticas.
Alrededor del año 1829 ese mismo paraje localizado en una amplia cañada sobre el río llamado Tijuana, rodeado de múltiples cerros, lomas y cañones, fue otorgado al militar y político californiano Santiago Argüello Moraga a través del jefe político del Departamento de las Californias José María Echeandía, bajo el nombre de "Tía Juana".
Años después, se denominó el 11 de julio de 1889 como la fecha oficial de la fundación de Tijuana y tal efeméride fue promovida por el VIII Ayuntamiento en el año 1976.
El inicio del asentamiento urbano
El inicio del asentamiento urbano del poblado de Zaragoza (Tijuana) se constituyó en 1889, cuando los herederos de Santiago Argüello y del Licenciado Agustín Olvera, celebraron un convenio en el que se asientan las bases para el desarrollo de la actual población de Tijuana.
Dicho acto se efectuó el 11 de julio de ese año, fecha en que décadas después, durante el II Simposium de Historia celebrado ex profeso en 1975, se reconoció como la fecha de fundación de esta joven ciudad.
Desde sus inicios, Tijuana vio su futuro turístico, ya que desde finales del siglo XIX y las primeras décadas del siglo XX, fueron para este punto tan apartado de la geografía nacional de inusitada actividad, a causa del constante cruce de residentes de California hacia el sur de la península por motivos de comunicación y comercio.
Tijuana, ciudad de oportunidades
Los años veinte trajeron acontecimientos trascendentales para Tijuana: la llamada "ley seca", que prohibió en Estados Unidos la venta de licor, motivó a que numerosos estadounidenses buscaran con avidez en la frontera mexicana lo que se negaba en su país.
Poco tiempo después, se autorizaron en México los juegos de azar, por lo que se abrieron importantes casinos en el territorio mexicano, entre ellos el de Agua Caliente de Tijuana.
Los acontecimientos internacionales de los años cuarenta tuvieron profundas repercusiones en la ciudad, por una parte, innumerables turistas del vecino país visitaban Tijuana para asistir a los centros nocturnos; además, se incrementó notablemente la inmigración de compatriotas provenientes de diversas entidades de la república mexicana, triplicándose la población de Tijuana, de 21,971 habitantes en 1940, a 65,364 en 1950.
A partir de esta fecha empezaron a declinar los centros nocturnos y a predominar notablemente el turismo familiar, lo que propició la reestructuracion de la industria turística al ofrecer a todos sus visitantes una variedad de atractivos familiares. En los ultimos años, la ciudad de Tijuana por su oferta de mejores oportunidades de vida, se ha convertido en un fenómeno demográfico de niveles sorprendentes, al estimarse en la actualidad una població superior a los 2 millones 500 mil habitantes, entre los que destacan un dínamico sector estudiantil en mas de 25 universidades y centros de enseñanza superior, así como una planta productiva generosa en oferta de empleo, que convierte a Tijuana en una de las principales ensambladores de televisores y el cuarto lugar poblacional en la republica mexicana, despué del Distrito Federal, Guadalajara y Monterrey.