List of Cities and Towns (Lista De Ciudades y Pueblos)
The first explorations made in the state were carried out between the years 1550 to 1580. The penetration of the Spaniards into Coahuila was slow and difficult due to extreme natural conditions and the resistance of the native people that attacked the newly founded settlements .
The first conquerors arrived to Coahuila at the end of 1568, led by Francisco Cano, who came from Nueva Galicia and explored the Derramadero Valley , the south part of Saltillo and General Cepeda.
After that, La Villa de Santiago del Saltillo was founded by the Portuguese Alberto del Canto in 1577 in the name of the Nueva Vizcaya Government. In 1798 political and military members mainly from Saltillo and Monclova had disputes agreeing concerning the location of the capital . In Saltillo trading was carried out between the internal provinces, establishing the contact with the administration of New Spain and the secretary of taxes . The city council designated to be Deputy Miguel Ramos Arizpe for the Cuatro Provincias de Oriente (Four Provinces of East) to Cadiz Court in Spain , who had different new political ideas to reorganize this city and who also wanted to attain autonomy. He also insisted on respect for politics and administrative city councils respect.
When the struggle for Independence started, military forces and the jail guards supported the royalists while Mariano Jiménez was commissioned by Ignacio Allende to spread the revolt. O n January 6, 1811 , he fought a battle against royalist soldiers led by the governor Antonio Cordero. Days later the insurgents took possession of Saltillo , and continued through Parras and Monclova . F inally Pedro Aranda was chosen the province governor. Weeks later, Allende and Hidalgo arrived at Saltillo and they named as heads of the movement Ignacio López Rayón and José María Liceaga. Royuela, bishop de Porres, and Ignacio Elizondo, an undercover soldier, conspired to apprehend the Independence leaders . T hey set a tramp in Acatita de Baján, south of Monclova . Once Hidalgo , Aldama and Allende were captured , they were sent to Monclova , then to Parras, next to Viesca and finally to Chihuahua where they were shot.
López Rayón defeated in Puerto Piñones, in the border of Coahuila and Zacatecas, the realists who wanted to impede his retreat .
The rest of the Independence War was not very important for the State of Coahuila . The congress formed by the end of the Independence War proclaimed in 1823 the first Mexican Constitution, forming a popular and federal representative system, influenced by the federalist Miguel Ramos Arizpe.
In the year 1846 the United States of America attempted to colonize our country, having as an objective, among others, to take possession of Coahuila. An invasion took place in the town of Rio Grande , known today as Guerrero , and they continued on to Monclova and Parras.
Ano ther group took possession of Saltillo , in an effort to stop the advance of the Mexican Army commanded by Santa Anna . In a battle at La Angostura near Saltillo he inflicted heavy losses on the N orth American forces, but for some unexplained reason he ordered his army to retreat. That meant that this battle was a draw - no winner and no loser.
In 1852, Juan Antonio de la Fuente proclaimed the second Constitution for Coahuila, through which its sovereignty was established. However, four years later Santiago Vidaurri, Nuevo León Governor , annexed Coahuila to that state. I n 1864 during the reign of Maximiliano as emperor of Mexico , President Benito Juárez started to travel around Mexico . After a rriving to Coahuila, he decreed its separation from Nuevo León and named Andrés S. Viesca as the new governor. In 1865, the French army took possession of the state but was defeated a guerilla movement commanded by Andrés S. Viesca, Francisco Aguirre, Victoriano Cepeda and Ildefonso Fuentes.
In 1877 and 1878 there were several uprisings led by Mariano Escobedo was against Porfirio Díaz. In 1908, Madero publishe d his book called La Sucesión Presidencial (The presidential succession) , which marked the beginning of a democratic era. He commenced a tour through several states in order to create non reelection ist clubs . In 1910 election year, El Partido Anti-reeleccionista (The non-reelection party) nominated Senator Venustiano Carranza for governor. At the same time government agents set up pro-Porfirio Diaz political clubs, accusing Carranza of being a Bernardo Reyes partisan.
That same year, when Madero was presidential candidate for Mexico , he was apprehended and jailed . There he learned of the adverse election results . This motivated him to write the Plan de San Luis (San Luis Plan) , the place where he was incarcerated, and had it circulated among his supporters . Venustiano Carranza organized an uprising in the north of Coahuila and Rafael de Cepeda did the same in Saltillo. Madero arrived in the state on November 20th. The same day the revolutionary army took possession of Ocampo, and Pablo González fought against the federalists on Monclova .
On February 1911, Saltillo was taken by a Revolutionary Junta led by Rafael de Cepeda as well as Francisco Coss, Luis and Eulalio Gutiérrez, Abraham Cepeda and other members, which controlled the southern part of the state. On M ay 13th the revolutionaries started an attack on Torreón , where the federal army was; almost at the same time Emilio Madero was taking possession of nearby San Pedro de las Colonias. Carranza was temporarily in charge of the Coahuila government and called for elections. These he won and took possession on November 22, 1911 . On March 1913 he proclaimed El Plan de Guadalupe (Plan of Guadalupe) in which the usurper Huerta was not recognized as President. On October 3, 1913 , Francisco Villa took Torreón and advanced toward Saltillo . On 1915, the Carranza army had almost the entire country under its dominion.