Info on Guadalajara


Guadalajara is a large city in the Western-Pacific region of Mexico, located at 20°67' N 103°35' W. Guadalajara is the capital of the state of Jalisco.
It is the second most populous city in Mexico, with an estimated population of 4,640,000 people in 2004. The Guadalajara metropolitan area also includes the municipalities of Zapopan, Tlaquepaque, Tonalá, Tlajomulco, and Ixtlahuacán. The estimated population of the metropolitan area was 8.9 million in 2004.
Guadalajara is known as La Perla del Occidente (Spanish for "Pearl of the West"), la Perla Tapatía ("tapatío" is an informal adjective of origin for people and things from Guadalajara) and, Ciudad de las Rosas. The city is also the birthplace of mariachi music and charreadas.
The name of the city originates from the Arabic Wad-al-hidjara, meaning "River Running Between Rocks". The city refers to itself as the Silicon Valley of Mexico. Such high-technology companies as General Electric, IBM, Hitachi, and Hewlett Packard have facilities in the city or its suburbs.
The Universidad de Guadalajara, the state's public university, has its headquarters here. Guadalajara is home to three popular soccer teams: Chivas, Atlas and Tecos.
Guadalajara is served by Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla International Airport.
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Guadalajara , city (1990 pop. 1,650,042), capital of Jalisco state, SW Mexico, second largest city of Mexico. The metropolitan area includes close to 3 million people. Guadalajara is a beautiful, spacious city on a plain more than 5,000 ft (1,524 m) high and surrounded by mountains. It is a modern commercial metropolis with many picturesque survivals of the Spanish colonial era. The mild, clear, dry climate has made it a popular health resort, and because of its charm it is often called “Perla del Occidente” (Pearl of the West).
Guadalajara is also an important communications and industrial center. Industry is aided by direct rail service to the United States and by a hydroelectric plant utilizing the Juanacatlán falls on the Santiago River. Food processing, the manufacture of xerographic and photographic equipment, plastics, chemicals, and electronic products are among the leading industries. The region around the city is important for agriculture and livestock raising; some coal is also mined. The most famous products of Guadalajara and its environs are intricately designed and finely worked glassware and pottery.
Founded by Cristóbal de Oñate c.1530, Guadalajara was moved twice, before and during the Mixtón War, because of military pressure by the region's native inhabitants; it was permanently established in 1542, the date chosen as its official founding. Guadalajara became the seat of the audiencia of Nueva Galicia. Easily captured in 1810 by Hidalgo y Costilla during the war against Spain, the city was the center of reform activities. Again in 1858, in the War of Reform, it was briefly occupied by the liberals under Benito Juárez.
The city's notable public buildings include the cathedral, finished in 1618 after more than 50 years of work, and the governor's palace, begun in 1643. The cathedral, which houses B. E. Murillo's The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, has been partially destroyed several times by earthquakes and represents a conglomerate of architectural styles. The governor's palace, with murals by J. C. Orozco, is an excellent example of Spanish colonial architecture. The Univ. of Guadalajara and the Instituto Cultural Cabaña also contain Orozco murals. The ornate Teatro Degollado is modeled on Milan's La Scala.
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The State of Jalisco is located on the Western side of the Mexican Republic, bordered on the North by the States of Durango, Zacatecas and Aguascalientes; on the Northwest by Nayarit; on the Northeast by Guanajuato and San Luis Potosí; on the South by Colima; on the southeast by Michoacán; and on the Southwest by the Pacific Ocean. Jalisco covers an area of 80,137 km2 (approximately 177 sq. miles), representing 4.09% of Mexico's total area.
The city of Guadalajara is the capital of the State of Jalisco; Guadalajara is the nation's second most important and largest urban area, covering 182 km2.
It is located in the Valley of Atemajac, which in Nahuatl (Indian language) means "place where the water divides". The altitude is 1,567 m. above sea level, and the area of the municipalities which make up the total Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara are as follows:
Municipalities
Guadalajara 182 Km2
Zapopan 893 Km2
Tlaquepaque 271 Km2
Tonalá 120 Km2
Guadalajara Metropolitan Area 500 Km2 (aprox.)
Twice during the year the sun goes by the zenith: on May 24th and July 18th. Between these dates, the sun declines towards the Tropic of Cancer, which latitude is reached on the 23 of June. The period of warm weather is tempered by the cooling rains. Even when the solar radiation is at its peak, the temperature remains comfortable, averaging 19ºC. The metereologists call this phenomenon "The Summer Abnormality"; the people from Gudalajara call it a "Blessing from Heaven".
The Rev. Severo Díaz, who in 1903 observed the behavior of meteors, made the discovery of the climate's mechanism. When the temperature descends in the northern part of the Continent it starts raining in Guadalajara., and very often a cold font moves in, due to the clash between the cold winds coming from the Eastern USA and the mass of clouds over the city, they condense and rain falls.
The average temperature of Guadalajara is 19.2º C, with a maximum average of 22.1ºC (during the month of May at 3 p.m. ) and a minimum average of 20.2ºC (during the month of December at 6 a.m.). The annual average rainfall measures 987.6 mm. There have been three extraordinary registered events: the snowfall in February of 1881 and on December 13 1997 and the 39ºC in the shade on June 4 1936. Source: Institute of Astronomy and Meteorology of the University of Guadalajara.
According to the 2000 INEGI statistics, Jalisco has a population of 7'000,000 inhabitants, of which 4'000,000 live in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara.
The average growth rate of the population of Jalisco is 0.16 %, and it is estimated that the economically active population is 1'756,501 persons.
Municipalities Population Density/Km2
Guadalajara 1´737,334 9,546
Zapopan 1´053,787 1,180
Tlaquepaque 497,244 1,835
Tonalá 353,482 2,946
Source: Consejo Nacional de Población (CONAPO)2002.
Services
The State´s profile has brought about a significant development of the service sector, which represents an important source of income and employment.
The most important activities in the State´s service sector include: entertainment, real estate, temporary lodging, bank services, food and beverages.
The financial sector has gained relevancy in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, where the services are supplied by banking institutions, corporations, stock brokers and credit unions, among others. In 2003, Jalisco´s bank had 621 banch offices, 420 of these were located in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara.
Jalisco ranks second in the country in total receipts of commercial banks, a result of the high level of integration of the banking and financial services, which favors the saving capacity and the resource potential used to spur their development.
Aside from the services mentioned above , the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara has many other financial establishments such as investment brokerages, money-exchange offices, leasing offices, bonding companies, as well as others related to this activity. It is important to mention the presence of BANCOMEXT (Foreign Trade National Bank), which helps individuals and enterprises in matter concerning exports and second- floor financial services, among others.
Transportation
Highways
The State of Jalisco has an excellent terrestrial and aerial transportation network, which has contributed to the close relationship between the main productive centers of the country. It has 25,303.98 km. of highways linking our State to other states and to the United States border.
The State´s main highways are:
Guadalajara - Nogales, communicating the capitals of the States of the north with the Pacific Ports.
Guadalajara - Colima - Manzanillo, integrates the states´ southern region and serves as a link between the municipality of Ciudad Guzmán and the Port of Manzanillo, one of the most important in the Republic.
Manzanillo, links Jalisco with the center and southeastern part of the country.
Guadalajara - México, connects the State of Jalisco with San Luis Potosí and the northeastern States of the country.
Guadalajara - Lagos de Moreno - Aguascalientes, connects the State of Jalisco with San Luis Potosí and the northeastern States of the country.
The distances between the country´s main cities and the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara are the following:
Nuevo Laredo 1,013 kms
Saltillo 689 kms
Aguascalientes 225 kms
México, D.F. 580 kms
Manzanillo 299 kms
Tampico 750 kms
Nogales 1,715 kms
Barra de Navidad 295 kms
Ciudad Juárez 1,520 kms
Tepic 227 kms
Lagos de Moreno 175 kms
Airports
Guadalajara´s International Airport "Miguel Hidalgo", located in the municipality of Tlajomulco de Zúñiga, 9 miles from the city.
This terminal, with a landing strip that measures 4,000 m. long and 60 m. wide, anchors a national and international communication network connecting major cities in Mexico and the United States.
The average of national fligth is193 per day and international 64. The annual number of passengers is 4.7 million in Guadalajara and Puerto Vallarta.
From this airport it is possible to be flown without scale to the most important cities of the United States:
City Flight Time
Los Angeles 3:15
Houston 2:00
Dallas 2:10
Chicago 3:45
San Francisco 3:50
Portland 4:00
One can fly to the following cities with stops in either Mexico City or Monterrey:
City Flight Time
Tucson 2:15
Las Vegas 3:20
El Paso 3:55
Nueva York 4:15
Miami 4:00
San Diego 4:05
San Antonio 3:50
Besides, the "Gustavo Díaz Ordaz" Airport is located in the municipality of Puerto Vallarta, 335 kms from Guadalajara.
This airport is equiped for the operation of airplanes DC-10, MD-80, B737, A320, MD-82, 83, 88, M32, A310, A330, B757, L1011, with a landing area of 3,100 m. long and 45 m. luidth, mantains a big net of national and international flights, so in 2003, 22,294 operations were realized.
Railroads
The State of Jalisco has a railroad network that measures 1,108 km., connecting both Guadalajara and Mexico City with the country's central and northern markets .
To the south, the railroad serves Ciudad Guzmán and links it with the Port of Manzanillo, located 313 km. from Guadalajara. Manzanillo is a transshipment port, the second largest in the nation, from which considerable tonnage is transported by sea. From January to June 2002, the tonnage moved weighed 4,061 thousand tons and 197,848 TEUS containers wew handled during the same year.
TEU: Unit equivalent to a 20´foot container.
Jalisco has been characterized by its important commercial growth. This activity has mainly focused on the purchase and sale of the following products: food and beverages, textiles, electronic appliances, tobacco, cosmetics, sport articles, construction materials and others.
The growth of the State´s commercial sector accounts for a large percentage of the Total National Income, only exceeded by the Federal District and the State of Mexico. Guadalajara is known for the facilities it offers for the organization of seminars, conventions, expositions and other similar events. An example is Expo-Guadalajara, a large-scale convention center situated amid luxurious hotels that cater to the convention-goers' needs.
Foreign Commerce
In the past several years, foreign commerce in Jalisco has grown considerably, due to innovations in business practices which have resulted in the high standards of quality required by the international market.
The State has achieved a major importance in exporting not only in volume but for the diversity of its products. Some of these are: food and beverages, toys, textiles, tequila, auto-parts, agricultural products, photographic equipment, electronic appliances, footwear and leather products, iron and steel products among others.
Foreign commerce in the State of Jalisco during the last years is as follows:
Year Exportations of billion dollars
1995 3.92 MMD
1996 5.05 MMD
1997 6.51 MMD
1998 7.76 MMD
1999 12.27 MMD
2000 14.7 MMD
2001 15.6 MMD
2002 16.2 MMD
2003 14.3 MMD
INDUSTRY
The industrial zones of Jalisco manufacture textiles, footwear, food, beverages, rubber, plastics, furniture, pharmaceutical products, etc. Moreover the State is home to high technology industries in electronics and communication. The Industry in Jalisco is mainly concentrated in the Metropolitan Area.
Industries located in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara include:
INDUSTRY ACTIVITY
Helados Bing Helados
Kodak Películas fotográficas
Laboratorios Pisa Artículos de laboratorio
Herramientas Urrea Herramientas
Aceitera Tapatía Oleoresina de chile
Bimbo de Occidente Pan
Jabil Circuits Electrónica
Hewlett Packard Computadoras y equipo
Látex Occidental Balloons
Technicolor
DVD producers
Vidriera Guadalajara Glassware
Chocolatera de Jalisco Chocolate
Triquest Plastic injection
Cervecería Modelo Beer
Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Beer
Cemex Cement
Tequila Sauza Tequila
Solectron
Electronic company
Flextronics
Electronic company
Honda
Cars and motorcycles
IBM
Computers
Resser
Alarms
Hershey México
Chocolate
Celanese Mexicana
Fibers and Cellulose
Siemens Capital Goods
Pemstar Electronic Company
The main economic activities in the Municipality of Guadalajara are:
SECTOR NUMBER OF
ESTABLISHMENTS %
Industry 10,371 9%
Commerce 39,179 34%
Services 51,854 45%
Farming 2,305 2%
Others 11,523 10%
Total 115,232 100%
The industrial sector of the the municipality of Guadalajara is mainly engaged in:
% ACTIVITY
31.74% Food products, beverages and tobacco.
31.46% Textile, clothing and shoe manufacture.
18.90% Wood industry
8.66% Printing and binding
6.28% Manufacturing of gold and silver jewelry
2.96% Others
100% Total
Business
Known in the business world as Mexico´s "Silicon Valley", Guadalajara stands as one of the most attractive cities for foreign investments in Mexico, creating spaces that are strategically located, with the necessary infrastructure to solve all the needs that businesses require to locate in our city.
Portrayed as a "kind city" Guadalajara takes 2nd place in the Mexican business world after Mexico City and before Monterrey . Guadalajara hosts well known international enterprises, whose presence have helped to transform the city into an excellent place to invest.
Globalization requires our city to effect a rapid and agile technological transition to maintain the necessary and constant commercial relationships between the various participants in the international trade. With this process the professionalism and response capacity comes to manifest through the attended needs of the investors or entrepreneurs interested in our State.
Guadalajara is the main player in Mexico´s Occidental region, providing the solutions to business needs, channeling via optical fiber the possibility to conduct business through the internet, turning it into an electronic business pioneer, presenting the program "Business Guadalajara Metropolitan" which has all the necessary decision-making information for investors planning to invest in our municipality.
"Business Guadalajara Metropolitan" is the first electronic program that has: a) nine icons containing folders of national and international statistical information; b) 600 businesses that are anxious to sell their products abroad c) information on the economic promotion laws in the state and municipality; d) investment opportunities in national companies, and e) a catalog of the most important events that will take place during the year.
The Guadalajara City Government through the Secretariat of Economic Promotion Area, has created and promotes the "Business Guadalajara Metropolitan" electronic page to attract more investments, more jobs and more business for Guadalajara, linking each company's address to an unlimited number of internet users, with no charge to the entrepreneurs. The site offers easy access and up-to-date information, to create a clear and reliable horizon for investors.
This program has 80 megabytes of information for business, organized in nine main areas and eight complementary:
· Business
· Legislation
· Statistics
· Business Directory
· Informative folder
· Fondo Guadalajara
· Biblioteca Virtual
· Anuario Socioeconómico
· Bolsa de Trabajo
· Welcome
· Government
· Tourism
· Links
· @ business
· News
· Events
· The climate
Tourism
Guadalajara is known worldwide for its traditional hospitality, with a wide variety of cultural and recreational attractions and delicious cuisine.
But most of all, it is known for its people. More than just a city, it represents Mexican culture with its folklore, the renowed Mariachi, handcrafts, tequila and the national sport, charrería.
Few cities can offer such a variety of interesting things to see and do, involving the visitors in a cultural, historical and legendary atmosphere. You can begin your enchantment by visiting the Historical Center and its magnificent buildings, such as the Instituto Cultural Cabañas named as "World Heritage Site " by the UNESCO.
Other must visits include the Degollado Theater, the Regional Museum, the City Museum, the Government Palace, and the Plazas that form a cross (in the middle of town), featuring the symbol that has become emblematic of Guadalajara, the towers of the Cathedral.
Other places that you should visit are the "Libertad Market", the Plaza Tapatía with its series of beautiful sculptures, fountains and gardens, and the Zoo, one of the most important in Latin America.
Contemporary Guadalajara represents modern Mexico in the strength of its economic, industrial, commercial and service infrastructure, together with legacy of four and a half centuries of culture, endorsed by the richness of the religious and civil architecture and by the hard work of inhabitants.
The modern section of the city offers an excellent selection of stores where the visitor find a great variety of clothing, footwear, accessories and gifts.
The Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara has a hotel capacity of over 16,000 rooms that vary from Economic to Five Star and Luxury Class. Several of these hotels have magnificent services for conventions and expositions, providing the most modern and advanced technology.
At the present time, the Secretariat of Economic Promotion Area, has electronic information for promotion and difusion known as ¡Vive Guadalajara!. The main purpose of this program is to promote within Mexico and to the world, all that is offered in the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area. This service is supported by numerous public and private entities.
¡Vive Guadalajara! is an interactive program that shows the beauty of Guadalajara and the Metropolitan Area with 186 Megabytes of information divided into 11 icons:
o Tourism
o Culture
o Services
o Sightseeing Tour
o Events
o Welcome
o Links
o Photo Gallery
o Post Cards
o New
o Searchthis promotional program is the answer to the need for handling the city´s tourist information in an orderly way, showing our guests the new image of our beautiful city and metropolitan area.
History
The word Guadalajara comes from the Arab word "Wad-al-hidjara", which means "River that runs between rocks". The city is named after the native city of Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán .
This city was capital of the kingdom of New Galicia.
On the 27th of May of 1824, Guadalajara beca me the capital of the State of Jalisco.
On February 14th 1542, the first city council ofthe actual Guadalajara was established. The Emperor Charles V of Germany and I of Spain, granted it the title of City and gave it its Coat of Arms that up until today is represented by it.
GUADALAJARA NAMED CAPITAL OF THE "NEW GALICIA"
On May 10th in 1560, the Royal representants asked to the Audiency who were part of the "Nueva Galicia" Crown, that resided in Compostela City, to move to Guadalajara City.
The Government decided that was convenient to build a Cathedral.
Guadalajara remained in the category of "Nueva Galicia" Capital in 1561.
The Supreme Tribunal Offices began working in the houses where the Council Municipal Palace was established.
Fray Pedro de Ayala put on the fist stone to build the same Cathedral the city has now a days.
This date is the begining of the Guadalajara's Political Life.
Guadalajara City had 3,000 citizens in this year.
UNIVERSITY
In 1700, the Guadalajara's Bishop Fray Galindo y Chávez felt the necessity for creating and foundating an University for the city
Mota Padilla in 1742 began the political and educational actions for creating the University of Guadalajara. He proposed the necessity for the city to have a University, because the distance between México City and Guadalajara was too long to go to study there and that became in an emigration of students.
With the Jesuits, i expulsion of Guadalajara City, in 1767, the necessity of founding the University of Guadalajara was urgent, because they were encharged of the education of Guadalajara's citizens.
In 1174, Carlos IV sent a real slip of parchment (cedula) to Guadalajara Audiency, to the New Spain "Virrey", to the Real University of México, to Guadalajara Bishopric and to Municipal Council asking for information about the covenience for foundating the Real University of Guadalajara.
In 1775 the Real University of México was against the University of Guadalajara foundating. It proposed that the Guadalajara Municipal Council and the Santo Tomás College gave lessons about theology, philosophy, law and medicine.
The Bishop Fray Antonio Alcalde assigned $400 per year to cover the salaries for teachers.
In 1783 the Real Superior Meeting of Temporalities Aplications arranged that the "San Miguel de Belén" Hospital remained for University.
The Guadalajara Municipal Council continuated the gestions and it made reports of activities since 1700 for obtaining the University tutory.
The money for University was $55 653 in that year 1788.
The King approved the theology, The Bible, law, medicine, philosophfy and spanish subjects.
The advices were initiated for constitutions, incorporations, calendars and courses for the University.
OFICIAL FOUNDATION OF THE GUADALAJARA UNIVERSITY
The foundation certificate was received in Guadalajara in May 26th. The oficial inauguration was in that year on the 3rd of November. The roules and norms for the University began to be created in that year.
PRESS
In 1792 in this city the first printing press was established by royal decree granted to don Mariano Valdéz Tellez Girón, a citizen born in México City, in the Plaza of Santo Domingo, today known as Jardín Nuñez.
Apparently the first publication was "Elogios Fúnebres" (Funeral elogy)
Dedicated in memory of Friar Antonio Alcalde
CARS
In 1793, the first collective transportations appeared by Manuel Antonio Valdés, called "The Providencia" or "Providentes". In August 15, 8 cars were inaugurated. This transportation was drag by mules and in it could not go more than 4 people. Little time later than the first taxis "Providencia" began, the first regulation for the taxis, appeared. They were made by municipality government.
The first car arrived to the tapatíos's life in 1898. At the begining, this vehicle utilized petroleum. It got to the Jalisco's Capital by the "Garita de San Pedro", it followed its way toward down town through the narrow streets. Its brands unknown. Twenty kilometers per hour was its maximum speed.
COMMERCE
Since 1795 the merchants obtained their independent trade union, that permited exert the interlaces with other regions.
MICERY HOUSE
On May 3th in 1797, the decrees made by the King Carlos IV arrived at the city of Guadalajara. Carlos IV invited the representative priests of the new world Diocesis to found a house that served to give protection to the helpless children. It is when the illustrious bishop of Guadalajara Don Juan Ruiz de Cabañas y Crespo, put in the decrees.
POPULATION
In 1800 the city had 45,000 inhabitants that concentrated in 334 blocks. The city grew to south-west and annexed with Analco and then grew to the west. Since 1800 Guadalajara increased the number of foreigns who brought unknown abilities and technologies.They contributed to develop new activities that changed the city. An example of this were the big department stores like the "las Fábricas de Francia", "El Nuevo París", etc. In 1964 Guadalajara celebrated the birth of the "One Million Tapatio", because the city was one of the Metropolis with a million people In that year of 1991, the population of Jalisco was 5'302,689 people.
HOSPICIO CABAÑAS CONSTRUCTION
In the year of 1805 the construction of the Micery House started and now it is called "Instituto Cultural Cabañas", in neoclasic style, that also includes the clasic barroque. The front of the porch is irregular quadrilateral and lengths 185 meters from east to west and 170 meters from south fo north. The porch fashion has 6 columns and the building has 23 corridors.
SLAVERY ABOLITION
The government palace was considered like National Palace during the visit of Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in Guadalajara.
In this place was aboling the slavery in 1810 and in the same year was publicated the first independent newspaper "El Despertador Americano" . The rules for the insurgent government were dictated.
INDUSTRY
In 1843 the factory of spinning and neeting was inaugurated "La Prosperidad Jalisciense" better known with the name of "Atemajac". The industry included the textil building factory, office and administrator´s house. It began working with 48 power looms and 210 operators.
COMUNICATION
In 1864 the exterior comunication in Jalisco was agile with the diligency service beetwen León and Guadalajara, it allowed to move large volume of marchandise.
NEWSPAPER
According with the creation of the Chamber of Commerce of Guadalajara, bussinessmen who formed the chamber considered the necessity to give an informative organ, so appeared "La Gaceta Mercatil" in August 18th in 1889, and the director was Don Manuel Stampa, the secretary was Lic. Don Julio Acero and the administrator was Mr. Eusebio Sánchez.
MARKET
The Mercado Corona is inaugurated in 1891 by the Ingenier Ambrosio Ulloa, It was constructed in the period of the goverment of the General Ramón Corona.
PORFIRIO DIAZ
Don Porfirio Díaz President of the Republic visited Guadalajara in 1897 and several social events took place in the city.
SAN JUAN DE DIOS RIVER
In 1897, some works were installed to water pipe San Juan de Dios River, which would be finished 13 years later.
LIBRARY
On the streets of Hidalgo and Pino Suárez, in December 18th. of 1874, the public State library was inaugurated by Mr. Carlos Benítez who designed the old style.
BUSES
By the year of 1917, Mr. Garnot and Mr. Maldonat of Guadalajara, established a bus service called "Wichita", between Guadalajara city and Chapala. These vehicles were enormous cars with solid tires and a capacity for 40 passengers. Besides being so expensive, the trip was very long since it used to take 5 hours to get to the city.
LOS CRISTEROS
"La Guerra Cristera" began in December 1926. this made that thousands of people from a wide area nearby Guadalajara, looked for shelter in this city. This war finished on June 29th. of 1929.
Plaza TapatíaThe ArchesRotunda of The Illustrious Native MenAgriculture MuseumArt MuseumJournalism MuseumAlbarran MuseumGuadalajara Regional MuseumFray Antonio AlcaldeJacobo GalvezJosé Clemente OrozcoJuan Ruíz de Cabañas y CrespoMota PadillaBasilica de ZapopanChamber of CommerceHouse of the Indian CultureJalisco HouseRectorate BuilingThe Municipality PalaceDegollado TheaterXVth Military ZoneThe CholeraMurdersSan Agustín Arcade FireThe Explosion in GuadalajaraThe Cardinal´s MurderGuadalajara CityPublic ServicesNueva GaliciaXVIIIth CenturyXIXth CenturyXXth CenturyThe University is CreatedThe University FoundationFirst Printing HouseBuggies for rentTradingOrphanagesPopulation CensusThe Cabañas Orphanage ConstructionSlavery AbolitionIndustryCommunication AbroadJournalismThe Corona MarketThe Visit of Porfirio DíazSan Juan de Dios River Public Library Alvaro Obregón Getting in the CityBusesThe CristerosBanksAutonoma University of GuadalajaraArt of MuralsIndustry of the FootwearRegional Chamber ShoesBus StationFirst Great Fair)The Jalisco Stadium InaugurationThe Jalisco Theater (Teatro Experimental)Tourism PromotionOctober FestivalPlaza del Sol MallThe Pope´s VisitThe State CongressExposition CenterIberoamerican CongressGuadalajara´s 450th AnniversaryThe New PesoPrince CharlesTransportationDrinking WaterLand PurchaseNeighborhoods are IncorporatedElectric streetcarsPublic ServiceTrainsStreet PavingSubwayTraffic LightsSubway Line 2Public Charge Designation
BANKS
"El Banco Refaccionario de Jalisco" is founded in1930. It is the first Institution that belonging to the State, was managed by people from the private sector.
AUTONOMA UNIVERSITY OF GUADALAJARA
In the year of 1935 "La Universidad Autonoma de Guadalajara" is founded. It is the most ancient private university, its purpose is not lucrative and it does not receive any gubernamental aid either.
ART (MURALS)
In 1938 painting the principal chapel at The Mercy's House (Cabañas Hospice ), Don José Clemente Orozco started his masterwork. It is a whole of murals which are painted in an area of 250 mts wide, with several issues about Guadalajara City since the conquest up to José Clemente Orozco's days.
SHOES
In 1940, Don Salvador López Chavez founded "Calzado Canada" which was the most important footwear industry of that time. It has became the biggest company in Latin America.
BUS STATION
By 1950, the State's Government wanted to create a Bus Station. The Municipal Stadium was designated as the most appropriate place to build it. This place was before the cementery of our Lady of the Angeles. The Stadium was nearby "El Parque Agua Azul" which was in the city's surroundings.
Until 1952 the bus station began its service. It was the first one all over the country.
FAIR
In December of 1953 the State's Government, organized the first "Gran Feria de Jalisco" (Jalisco's Great Fair) in the place that beforely was the bus station.
The Jalisco stadium was inaugurated in January in 1960, it has capacity for 65 thousands people.
JALISCO EXPERIMENTAL THEATER
Jalisco Experimental Theater oppened its doors on December 6th in 1960.
TURISM
One of the main promotion objetives was to encourage the tourism fo the capital of the state of Jalisco. At the bgining in the management goverment of Juan Gil preciado who promoted the Tourism department creation, the offices were in the goverment building. One comition was created to determinate the hotels and food rates
"FIESTAS DE OCTUBRE"
In 1965 "Fiestas de Octubre" was founded lice a touristic attraction. This sepcial event has three main activities, commercial, cultural and entretaiment.
PLAZA DEL SOL
The year of 1968 is important because a new shopping idea was created. The first shopping mall was "Plaza del Sol". On that date "Plaza del Sol" was the largest Shopping Center in Latin America. The investment was around was the largest shoping Center in Latin America. The investment was aroound $300 million pesos and 1,500 people worked on this ambicious project.
THE POPE VISIT
I978 was an important year for the tapatia society because the pope Juan Pablo II visited the city. He visited the Zapopan virgin and gathered with many people.
The Congress
On Febrery 5th in 1982 the new building for the Congress was inaugurated by Jose López Portillo y Pacheco, Presidet of the Republic.
EXPOSITION CENTER
On February 20th in 1987 it was the inauguration of the exposition center "Expo Guadalajara".
Now, Guadalajara city has a Special center for expositions of different activities.
The total area of Expo Guadalajara is 63,000 m2 with exhibit space of 14,400m2. Expo Guadalajara offers a fascinating combination plus the professional support for your commercial and marketing needs.
IBEROAMERICAN CONGRESS
In 1991 the XVIII Iberoamerican Chambers of Commerce congress was inaugurated, this event was the proud of Guadalajara.
450 YEARS OLD GUADALAJARA
In 1992 Guadalajara city celebrated its 450 years of being foundated and there were many events to celebrated the festivity.
NEW PESO
The new peso started moving in 1993. The new monetary unit without three ceros for all the country, was established by Bank of México.
CHARLES PRINCE
Prince Charles from United British, visited Guadalajara on February 16th. in 1993.
Source of Info Here
THE HISTORY OF JALISCO
For more than a century, Mexican nationals have been crossing the southern border to begin new lives in the United States. A large percentage of those immigrants have come from the state of Jalisco. Jalisco, located in the west central part of the Mexican Republic, is the sixth largest of Mexico's thirty-one states. Within its 124 municipios, the state boasts a population that is approaching seven million.
Bordered by the Pacific Ocean on its west, the 31,210 square miles of Jalisco make up 4.1% of the total area of Mexico and touches seven other Mexican states. While Colima and Michoacán lay to her south and east, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes and Nayarit lay to the north. In addition, Jalisco has a common border with Guanajuato and a small sliver of San Luis Potosí on her northeastern frontier.
Today, Jalisco is a land of peace. But from the early Sixteenth Century until the Cristero Rebellion of the 1920s, Jalisco's beautiful landscape was ravaged by warfare time and again. Over a period of four centuries, many battles were fought on the soil of Jalisco. When one learns of the trials and tribulations endured by the people of Jalisco, he or she can begin to appreciate and understand the pride that Jaliscans feel for their native soil.
The name "Jalisco" is believed to be derived from the Nahuatl words "xalli" (sand, gravel) and "ixtli," which means "face," or by extension, plane. Thus, the word Jalisco would literally mean "sandy place." The first inhabitants of Jalisco were nomadic tribes traveling through the area en route to the south. At one point, the Toltecs ruled over the Kingdom of Xalisco. But, in 1112, the Indian subjects of this kingdom rose in rebellion, leading to the disintegration of Xalisco. Among the indigenous tribes inhabiting Jalisco at the time of the Spanish encounter were the Cazcanes (who inhabited the northern regions near Teocaltiche and Lagos de Moreno) and the Huicholes (who also inhabited the northwestern region near present-day Huejúcar and Colotlán).
The Guachichile Indians, who inhabited a large part of Zacatecas, also had some representation in the Los Altos area near Tepatitlán and Arandas. The Cuyuteco Indians, who spoke the Nahua language of the Aztecs, lived in the western sector near the present-day towns of Cuyutlán and Mixtlán. Living close to what is now Guadalajara were the Tecuexes and Cocas. However, the Tecuexes also extended to the northeast through Los Altos all the way to Lagos de Moreno. The Guamares lived in the far east, along what is now the border of Jalisco and Guanajuato. The Otomíes, who inhabited the southern area near Zapotitlán and border area with Colima, were transplanted Christian Indians brought to the region as allies of the Spaniards.
In 1522, shortly after the fall of Tenochtitlán (Mexico City), Hernán Cortés commissioned Cristóbal de Olid to journey into the unexplored territories of the northwest to explore that area we now call Jalisco. Then, in December 1529, the President of the First Audiencia in Nueva España (Mexico), Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán, left Mexico City with a force of 300 Spaniards and 6,000 Indian allies. Guzmán, a lawyer by profession, had already gained a reputation as a ruthless and cruel administrator when he served as Governor of Panuco on the Gulf Coast. With little regard for Spanish laws forbidding the enslavement of Indians, Guzmán had enslaved and shipped tens of thousands of Indians off to the Caribbean Islands to live out their lives as slaves.
Traveling through Michoacán, Guanajuato, Jalisco, and Sinaloa, Guzmán left a trail of devastation and terror wherever he went. In 1531, Guzmán ordered his chief lieutenant, Juan de Oñate, to found La Villa de Guadalajara - named after the city of his birth in Spain - on the plateau near Nochistlán in the present-day state of Zacatecas. The construction of Guadalajara began on January 5, 1532. However, the small settlement came under repeated attacks almost immediately from the local Cazcanes Indians and, on August 5, 1533, had to be abandoned. The town of Guadalajara would be moved four times before finding its final home on February 14, 1542 at its present site.
While Guzmán ravaged through the western and central parts of Mexico, reports of his brutal treatment of the Indians reached the authorities in Mexico City. One man who took special notice of Guzmán's genocidal transgressions was Antonio de Mendoza, who in 1535 was appointed as the first of sixty-one viceroys who would rule Nueva España. Egged on by both Bishop Bartolome de las Casas and Archbishop Juan de Zumarraga, strong advocates for the Indians, Mendoza arrested Guzmán in 1536 and imprisoned him. He was returned to Spain where he died in obscurity and disgrace.
The long-range implications of Guzmán's reign of terror were realized in 1541 when the Mixtón Rebellion pitted the indigenous people of Jalisco against Spanish rule. Under the leadership of Tenamaxtli, the Indians fortified their positions near Mixtón, Nochistlán, and other towns, while laying siege to Guadalajara. Unable to cope with the intensity of this uprising, Cristóbal de Oñate, the Acting Governor of the region, pleaded for aid from Viceroy Mendoza. The famous conquistador, Pedro de Alvarado, coming to the aid of Oñate, led an attack on Nochistlán. However, the indigenous defenders counterattacked with such ferocity that Alvarado's forces were routed. In this hasty retreat, a horse fell upon Pedro de Alvarado. Mortally wounded by the crushing weight of the horse, Alvarado, the conqueror of Guatemala, died in Guadalajara a week later on June 24, 1541.
However, eventually Viceroy Mendoza, with a force of 300 horsemen, 300 infantry, eight pieces of artillery and 20,000 Tlaxcalan and Aztec Indian allies, succeeded in recapturing one town after another, against great resistance. By December 8, 1541, most of the indigenous resistance had been ended. In 1548, King Carlos V of Spain decreed the creation of the Audiencia of Nueva Galicia, which included all of present-day Jalisco, Zacatecas, and Aguascalientes.
In 1550, the Chichimeca War started. The definitive source of information relating to the Chichimeca Indians and the Chichimeca War is Philip Wayne Powell's Soldiers, Indians, and Silver: North America's First Frontier War. Although Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, and Guanajuato were the primary battlegrounds in this fierce frontier war, some parts of Jalisco also came under attack. In 1554, the worst disaster of all took place when Chichimeca Indians attacked a Spanish caravan of sixty wagons with an armed escort in the Ojuelos Pass. In addition to inflicting great loss of life, the Chichimecas carried off more than 30,000 pesos worth of clothing, silver, and other valuables.
By the last decade of the century, the efforts of Viceroy Alonso Manrique de Zuñiga to make peace with the Chichimecas met with success. Mr. Powell has described in detail the efforts of Viceroy Mendoza to achieve peace. The end of hostilities brought a period of extended prosperity for the economy of Jalisco. During the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century, the commercial importance of Jalisco became a crucial ingredient to the success of Spain's prized colony.
Guadalajara, because of its strategic location within the Spanish colony, became prosperous as it funneled imported goods - both legal and illegal - to other parts of the colony. This period was also a period of consolidation in which certain Indian groups were formally brought under Spanish control. In 1721, the leader of the Coras, an indigenous group living in present-day Nayarit and western Jalisco, negotiated a peace with the Spanish authorities.
On September 16, 1810, Father Miguel Hidalgo set into motion the Mexican struggle for independence when he issued "El Grito de Dolores" (The Cry of Dolores) from his parish in Guanajuato. What started as a small rebellion quickly snowballed into a full-scale revolution. Moving from one town to another, Hidalgo's insurgents were able to take control of some cities without firing a shot.
On November 4, 1810, the rebel forces defeated a Creole militia at Zacoalca, killing over 250 Loyalists. This victory left the city of Guadalajara vulnerable to rebel attack. On November 26, 1810, the forces of Hidalgo entered Guadalajara. Once in the city, the rebels arrested many Spaniards and announced the abolition of slavery. In the meantime, the recruitment efforts of Hidalgo brought the rebel strength up to about 80,000 in January. However, on January 13, 1811, Hidalgo learned that the Royalist forces of General Félix María Calleja del Rey were approaching Guadalajara. Upon receiving this news, Hidalgo assembled his forces and led them to the outskirts of the city. Here the rebel forces took up positions on several hills and awaited the arrival of the enemy.
On January 17, 1811, at Calderón Bridge on the Lerma River east of Guadalajara, Hidalgo's forces joined battle with the Royalist forces of Gen. Calleja del Rey. Hidalgo's men were on the verge of victory when - suddenly - Royalist artillery fire struck one of the insurgents' ammunition wagons. A stupendous explosion resulted, igniting the grass of the plains and panicking Hidalgo's men. Within minutes, Hidalgo's forces were in a massive retreat. It was this battle that broke the back of Hidalgo's revolt. Eventually, Hidalgo was captured and executed (July, 1811).
As the revolution continued, Jalisco remained the site of confrontations between royalist forces and insurgents. In 1812, insurgent activity became particularly strong in the vicinity of Lake Chapala. However, after the capture and execution of key leaders, the rebel movement lost momentum and some insurgent leaders accepted amnesty in 1816. The uncertainty of the rebellion against Spain was further magnified on the morning of May 31, 1817 when a massive earthquake caused great damage to Guadalajara and the surrounding areas. Jalisco remained, for the duration of the war, a stronghold of periodic insurgent activity. Finally, in 1822, the Spanish authorities relinquished their claim on Mexico, and Royalist forces embarked for Spain, leaving behind an independent Mexican Republic.
On June 2, 1823, the Free State of Jalisco was established in confederation with the other Mexican states. But independence did not bring stability to Jalisco. The historian Dawn Fogle Deaton writes that in the sixty-year period from 1825 to 1885, Jalisco witnessed twenty-seven peasant (primarily indigenous) rebellions. Seventeen of these uprisings occurred within one decade, 1855-64, and the year 1857 witnessed ten separate revolts.
According to Ms. Deaton, the cause of these "waves of unrest, popular protest, and open rebellion" arose "out of the political and social struggles among classes and between classes." She further explained that the "commercialization of the economy," especially in agriculture, had led to fundamental changes in the lifestyles of the peasants and thus brought about "the seeds of discontent."
The peasant rebellions were accompanied by revolts on the state level against the federal government. On April 12, 1834, the Jalisco Legislature invited the states of Querétaro, Guanajuato, San Luis Potosí, Michoacán, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, Tampico and Durango to form a coalition to defend themselves against the Federal rule of General Antonio López de Santa Anna. During that summer, a mob of about sixty to eighty men, through intimidation and threats, persuaded the leaders of Guadalajara to resign. Through such manipulation, the Federal Government kept Jalisco under heel.
During the 1850s, the ongoing and passionate battle between the Liberals and Conservatives spilled into Jalisco. From 1855 to 1864, Ms. Deaton writes, Jalisco's government witnessed eighteen transfers of power. One of the key issues was the role of the Catholic Church and the separation of church and state. The Liberals viewed the Church as their staunch opponent and as the conservatives' political and economic supporter. In effect, Liberal advocates sought to reduce influence of the Church.
Then, with the adoption of a Liberal-based constitution in January 1857, the Conservative/Liberal conflict evolved into a full-scale civil war, referred to as the War of the Reform. With the resignation of President Comonfort, Liberal leader Benito Juárez had become Acting President of the Mexican Republic. However, Conservative forces moved quickly to attack Juárez in Mexico City. As a result, Juárez was forced to flee to Guadalajara.
Then, on March 20, 1858, faced with the imminent arrival of Conservative forces, Benito Juárez and his Liberal forces were forced to flee Guadalajara. Soon he would arrive in Veracruz, where he set up his government. Reaching its peak in June and July of 1859, the War of the Reform paralyzed the economy of Jalisco. A large segment of southern Jalisco, including Guadalajara, were devastated, leading to a mass migration of middle class persons. Of the thirty most important battles of the War of the Reform, twelve took place on Jalisco's territory.
With the end of the War of the Reform and the return of Juárez to Mexico City in 1861, Mexico faced a French invasion. The French, invited to Mexico by the Conservatives, moved - against great resistance - to occupy most of the country. During the French occupation, multiple confrontations between French and Republican troops took place within the territory of Jalisco. On December 18, 1866, Mexican forces under General Eulogio Parra won a decisive battle against the French forces near Acatlán. Within months, the French would completely evacuate their forces from Mexico.
A state of Jalisco's prominence was unable to avoid becoming a battleground during the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920). In Manuel M. Diéguez, an ally of President Venustiano Carranza and the Governor of Jalisco, enacted a reign of terror. During his occupation of Guadalajara, Diéguez's forces persecuted the clergy, confiscated holdings of the rich, and imprisoned or executed followers of Victoriano Huerta. As the rebel forces of Pancho Villa approached Guadalajara, many people from the Jalisco countryside joined forces with the Villistas. Finally, on December 17, 1914, Villa entered Guadalajara, forcing Diéguez to flee. Soon after, Villa called together the richest men of both Jalisco and Guadalajara and announced a forced loan of one million pesos. Passing out money to the poor, Villa became enormously popular, but his victory was short-lived and soon he had to leave the city. By April, the Constitutionalist forces of Diéguez once again controlled Guadalajara.
One of the major consequences of the Mexican Revolution was the Constitution of 1917. The articles of this constitution deprived the Catholic Church of its traditional privileged position in Mexican society by secularizing all primary education and requiring the registration of all clergymen with the government (to regulate their "professional conduct"). Article 24, which forbade public worship outside the confines of the church, had antagonized many Mexican citizens.
In 1926, President Plutarco Elías Calles, in implementing the articles of the Constitution, signed the so-called "Intolerable Acts." The implementation of these strongly anti-clerical laws antagonized many Catholics and laid the foundation of the so-called "Cristero Religious War." Los Altos and the "Three-Fingers" border region of northern Jalisco, long regarded as a vanguard of Catholicism in Mexico, would become battlefields in this next war, which started in 1926.
During the period from 1926 to 1932, the government of Jalisco changed hands ten times. At one point, some 25,000 rebels had been mobilized to resist the articles of the Constitution. The bloody conflict was formally ended in June 1929. However, outbreaks of violence continued into the 1930s. Over time, the uneasy relationship between the Church and state relaxed considerably and, while the oppressive laws originally signed into law by Calles remained on the books, little effort was made to enforce them.
Today, Jalisco remains one of the most important states in Mexico, both culturally and economically. With the third-largest economy in the Mexican Republic, Jalisco exports more than $5 billion annually to 81 countries and ranks first among the states in agribusiness, computers and the manufacturing of jewelry. Some people say that Jalisco is both the heart and soul of Mexico. Many of the things that are considered as typically Mexican, such as mariachi music, charreadas (rodeos), the Mexican Hat Dance, tequila, and the broad-rimmed sombrero hat, are in fact derived from Jalisco's rich cultural heritage. For the last five centuries, Jalisco has been the site of many civil wars and many battles. But, in spite of these ongoing conflicts, the spirit of the people of Jalisco has endured and, in fact, flourished.
By Donna S. Morales and John P. Schmal
Guadalajara, Mexico is Mexico's second largest city, has long been among the most important of Mexican cities economically and politically. Recently, it has come to be a favorite location for foreign vacationers and retirees. The city its 450th anniversary in 1992. Throughout the centuries, the city has become rich in history, and to this day, many of the most historic and beautiful of Guadalajara's buildings still stand as reminders of the significance Guadalajara has had and will continue to have on Mexico. Combining an agreeable climate, varied leisure pursuits, historical sightseeing and assorted cultural attractions. Guadalajara Hotels
Guadalajara and the surrounding state of Jalisco are two of Mexico's most beautiful and historic showpieces. As the second largest city in Mexico, with more than 5 million people, the city has grown significantly in the past 10 years. Although modern progress had added some urban inconveniences, it is the perfect place for visitors looking for a taste of authentic Mexican culture together with modern comforts and attractions.
Guadalajara and Jalisco are known as the home of tequila, mariachi music and the charro tradition: Mexico's ornately dressed horsemen who perform a Mexican-style rodeo known as charreadas. When visiting Guadalajara, day trips will showcase the state's diverse natural beauty. Many visitors enjoy the gorgeous villages lining Lake Chapala, Mexico's largest freshwater lake. Others head for the rugged Sierra Madre mountains and the tranquil alpine villages of Tapalpa and Mazamitla.
Almost all luxury hotels in Guadalajara Mexico are located in the west side of the city close to Plaza del Sol, a large hotel, shopping and entertainment complex developed on the 1980s. Hotel Fiesta Americana is a 22-story luxury hotel with one of the best-equipped business centers in Guadalajara. Amenities include non-smoking floors, tennis courts, exercise room, pool and business services. Hotel Crowne Plaza Guadalajara has beautiful gardens surrounding a large pool. The hotel is known for its excellent service and amenities include miniature golf, tennis courts, massage, baby-sitting and a exercise room.
Guadalajara Hotels are located downtown (centro histórico) do not have the amenities of west side hotels however there are several quite comfortable. Hotel de Mendoza is a good example. It has a refined neo-renaissance decoration and comfortable rooms. Hotel del Mendoza enjoys one of the best locations on a quiet street two block from the cathedral and one block from Teatro Degollado. Other good downtown hotel alternatives are hotel Cervantes and Calinda Roma.
Guadalajara is the second largest city in Mexico and offers a variety of places for dancing and having fun. Live music is available at Rock Cocó and 1907 El Antro, one of the most popular spots among Guadalajara?s young at heart.
One of the most interesting places of historical interest in Guadalajara is the Government Palace. It was first occupied by the governors of the old territory of Nueva Galicia, now the state of Jalisco, during the colonial period. Then, during the 19th century, it was the lodging of the insurgent, Miguel Hidalgo, who passed the law abolishing slavery from that very palace in 1810. Years later, it was the headquarters of the Federal Government when, Don Benito Juárez, the great patriot, took over the building during his flight from the conservative troops of Generals Miramón and Márquez.
Craftsmen village, Tlaquepaque owes its prestige and international renown to the skilled potters that mold the local clay. It is a wonderful place for buying high-quality craftwork, not least because of the excellent prices found in this town that was once the soul of Mexico.
The former indigenous capital, Tonalá, "the city where the sun rises" is Jalisco?s pottery center and the only place where ceramics are produced using eleven different techniques. Also worth visiting is the Pantaleón Panduro Museum of the National Ceramics Prize which contains a spectacular sample of Mexican ceramic arts.
Tequila is a strong, transparent, alcoholic drink that is considered to be Mexico's national drink. It is obtained from the plant called maguey that grows in and around the town of Tequila, in the state of Jalisco. Ancient people made alcoholic beverages using the maguey plant long before the Spaniards came to the New World. In order to refine the drink the Spaniards introduced the process of distillation. It takes between 8 and 12 years for the maguey to mature. When it is ready to be harvested, the leaves and spikes of the maguey are stripped away, leaving only the heart, which looks like a pineapple. The heart is roasted, pressed, and then shredded to extract the juice, to which sugar is added. The mixture is left to ferment for four days, and then it is distilled twice. Afterwards the tequila is aged in wooden casks and the final product is a clear liquid.
State of Jalisco is also home to Puerto Vallarta Mexico Home of the 2nd largest bay in North America.
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WHAT IS MARIACHI?
The only thing more Mexican than tequila is mariachi and it seems a shame to have one without the other.
Mariachi goes beyond music, it is the sum of a cultural revolution expressed through a group of musicians, dressed in popular clothing (most recently charro suits) which encompasses the essence of Mexico and its people. It is something cultural, spiritual and traditional that is unique to this country, an experience not to be missed.
The word mariachi refers to the musicians now commonly seen in restaurants or strolling the streets, dressed in silver studded charro outfits with wide brimmed hats playing a variety of instruments which include violins, guitars, basses, vihuelas (a 5 string guitar) and trumpets.
Their songs speak about machismo, love, betrayal, death, politics, revolutionary heroes and even animals (one particularly famous song is "La Cucaracha").
The mariachi originated in the southern part of the state of Jalisco sometime in the 19th century. No one is sure where the name comes from although a variety of theories have been postulated and, depending on which best fits the postulators needs, are adhered to.
The original theory held that mariachi was derived from the French word for wedding - mariage, because of the type of music played at these events. The only problem with this theory is that the music originates in a part of Mexico the French never visited and, even it they had, it began before their arrival in 1864.
Another theory states that the word comes from the indigenous name of the Pilla or Cirimo tree, whose wood is used to make guitars. If this were true then the word mariachi would be applied to the instrument itself and not to those who play it.
It has also been suggested that the name comes from a festival in honor of a virgin known as Maria H. (mah-ree-ah AH-chay) at which musicians played and that over time they were given this name.
The truth is that no one knows where the name originated, but it is one which is associated with a great deal of prestige not only in Mexico, but around the world.
The origins of the mariachi itself (the group, culture, music, etc.) are not much easier to trace. The mariachi is the sum of a cultural evolution which has taken place over the last century or so in Mexico.
Although the indigenous tribes of Mexico made music with flutes, drums and whistles, there is no clear link between the indigenous music and the mariachi. The instruments originally used by the mariachi were those introduced by the Spaniards - violins, guitars, vihuelas, harps, etc. These instruments were intended to be used during masses but the criollos (Mexicans of Spanish descent) began using them to make popular music as well, much to the chagrin of the priests, since they were used to accompany some of the more scandalous, satirical or anticlerical couplets of the times.
Mariachi music thrived with the support of the people. The criollos of the 19th century did all they could to wipe out every last trace of the Spanish presence in Mexico and, by doing so, supported the mariachi music.
Mariachis could be seen wearing traditional workmen's clothes - white pants and shirt and a straw hat, and traveling around looking for work. Most commonly they would find employment at any of the haciendas where they would earn more than the average laborer.
With the revolution, many of the haciendas were forced to let the mariachis go. They would then wander from town to town singing songs of revolutionary heroes and enemies, carrying news from one place to another.
Still not enjoying the same position they had before, the mariachis took to playing in public venues for a fee. One of the most popular of these was San Pedro Tlaquepaque in the state of Jalisco, a fashionable place for the residents of Guadalajara to spend their summers.
Since they were playing for a fee they were forced to add new elements to their music and to expand their repertoire to include waltzes and polkas.
By the early part of this century the mariachi began to regain its popularity. The most prized of the mariachis were still those from the state of Jalisco, particularly the areas of Cocula and Tecaltitlan. They represented Mexico to the people during the Independence day celebrations in Mexico City in 1933 as well as during Lazaro Cardenas' election campaign in 1936.
With the advent of radio and television their popularity continued to grow. Recording contracts were signed and they were paired with famous singers like Jorge Negrete and Pedro Infante. Due to the popularity of jazz and Cuban music the trumpet was adopted, pushing the violins into second place and, in some cases, replacing the harp.
Movies were made which represented Mexico as a place populated with truly macho men whose live revolved around the charro, tequila and, of course, the mariachi.
Today, mariachi music is played around the world in places as far away as Japan and Europe. This integral part of Mexico's culture and history is celebrated each September in its birth place, Jalisco.
By Camille Collins
Guadalajara
Guadalajara is the capital of the state of Jalisco. The city has retained a a Spanish colonial atmosphere, although it is the agricultural, commercial and industrial centre of the western highlands.
Guadalajara celebrated its 450th anniversary in 1992. Throughout the centuries, the city has become rich in history, and to this day, many of the historic buildings still stand as reminders of the significance the city.
One of the main attractions in town is the Cathedral which has a number of altars and a big art collection. There are also a lot of parks, the Parque Agua Azul and the Parque de las Armas are most noteworthy. Around the Cathedral there are two more parks, the Parque de los Laureles and the Parque de la Revolución.
If you want to go shopping you should head for the the Plaza Libertad. It has a colourful market with a wide range of locally produced goods.
In October a big harvest festival takes place. Bullfights are organized as well as other activities.
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Guadalajara en sintesis Amor Y Amistad en tu ciudad
La palabra Guadalajara proviene del vocablo árabe "Wad-al-hidjara", que significa "río que corre entre piedras". Tomó su nombre de la ciudad natal de Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán, conquistador de esta tierra.
Esta ciudad fue capital del reino de la Nueva Galicia.
Guadalajara se convirtió en capital del Estado de Jalisco el 27 de mayo de 1824
El 14 de febrero de 1542 se instaló el primer Ayuntamiento de la actual Guadalajara y su majestad, el Emperador Carlos V de Alemania y I de España le concedió el título de Ciudad y le otorgó su escudo de armas, que hasta estos días representa a Guadalajara.
La palabra Guadalajara proviene del vocablo árabe "Wad-al-hidjara", que significa "río que corre entre piedras". Tomó su nombre de la ciudad natal de Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán, conquistador de esta tierra.
Esta ciudad fue capital del reino de la Nueva Galicia.
Guadalajara se convirtió en capital del Estado de Jalisco el 27 de mayo de 1824
El 14 de febrero de 1542 se instaló el primer Ayuntamiento de la actual Guadalajara y su majestad, el Emperador Carlos V de Alemania y I de España le concedió el título de Ciudad y le otorgó su escudo de armas, que hasta estos días representa a Guadalajara.
Mas Info
La ciudad de Guadalajara es la capital del estado de Jalisco, el cual se localiza al oeste de México. La ciudad es rica en arquitectura colonial y su área metropolitana es la segunda aglomeración urbana más grande del país (después de México D. F.). Cuenta con una población de más de 4 millones habitantes y es el centro económico y cultural de la región.
La palabra Guadalajara proviene del vocablo sarraceno Wadil-ad-jara, que significa ‘río de piedras’ o ‘río entre piedras’.
Entre las tradiciones más populares de Guadalajara se encuentran la charrería y la música de mariachis. También es sede de uno de los equipos de fútbol con más tradición en México, el Club Deportivo Guadalajara.
Internacionalmente, Guadalajara ha sido sede de importantes eventos como la I Cumbre Iberoamericana de jefes de estado, la Copa Mundial de Fútbol (en dos ocasiones), la Copa FIFA Confederaciones, la Copa de Oro y la III Cumbre de América Latina, el Caribe y la Unión Europea.
En realidad, la zona metropolitana de Guadalajara se divide en varios municipios: el municipio de Guadalajara, Zapopan, Tlaquepaque, Tonalá, El Salto y Tlajomulco de Zúñiga.
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