Info de Uruapan


Uruapan
No hay mucho acopio de datos relacionado con a la historia de Uruapan, sin embargo se atribuye su fundación a Fray Juan de San Miguel, no obstante se reconoce que en estas tierras ya existían asentamientos humanos Purhépechas, mucho antes de la llegada de los Españoles.
Fray Juan de San Miguel se apersonó en Uruapan en el año de 1531, encontró casi abandonado el lugar, sin embargo se dio cuenta que habitaban en la región aledaña pequeñas familias de otomies, aztecas, nahuatl, chichimecas, chontales, tarascos y otros grupos étnicos los cuales hablaban sus propias lenguas, los Purhépechas lograron tener cierto control militar y político, pero de ninguna manera eran los únicos ni los primeros en esta región.
El cronista Fray Pablo Beamount, señala que en 1522, el Rey Tanganxuan II se refugió, cuando huía del conquistador Cristóbal de Olid en lo que hoy es Uruapan. Considerando que Fray Juan de San Miguel arribó a este lugar en el año de 1531, existe pues, una diferencia de 11 años, lo que claramente demuestra que existían pobladores en estas tierras, antes de la llegada del que esta conceptuado como fundador de Uruapan. En el famoso lienzo de Jucutacato aparece Uruapan, mencionándose como un lugar de paso de la peregrinación de los Nonoalcas.
Debido a causas difíciles de precisar, la ciudad de Uruapan ha perdido una parte importante de su material histórico, por lo cual se dificulta conocer su pasado, ya que existen algunas lagunas en el tiempo entre una época y otra, por ejemplo en todo el tiempo que duró la conquista apenas se tienen datos referentes a este periodo.
Fray Juan de San Miguel agrupó y organizó a la gente en barrios, mismos que fundó con nombres de santos patronales los cuales contaban con su capilla, coro y escuela. Estos barrios eran considerados de alguna manera como comunidades autónomas, con identidad clánica y costumbres propias, realizando los trazos urbanos de los mismos el ya mencionado fundador. Los nombres de los barrios, siguiendo su disposición por parte norte y dando vuelta al pueblo en el sentido de las manecillas del reloj; San Juan Bautista, San Miguel, San Francisco, La Magdalena, San Juan Evangelista, San Pedro y Santiago. En el centro del pueblo el de la Trinidad y en la zona conocida actualmente como los Riyitos en el barrio de los Reyes.
Su nombre se traduce del tarasco como "lugar de eterna primavera". Otras versiones lo derivan de la voz "urani jicara", relacionada con la artesanía local. Fundada en 1533 por Fray Juan de San Miguel
Atractivos de Uruapan
Arquitectura Colonial: Cuenta con varias placitas típicas y con algunas capillas interesantes, como las que quedan en los antiguos barrios indígenas que guardan valiosas imágenes hechas de caña como la de La Magdalena (s.XVI).
Arquitectura Civil: La Plaza de los Mártires: frente al templo de San francisco, en 1893 se erigio un monumento para honrar la memoria de los mártires de Uruapan, sacrificados por las armas imperialistas.
Artesanías: Es conocido internacionalmente por el uso del "maque" en jícaras y bateas algunas de las cuales logran ser verdaderas obras de arte. También se producen bellas mantas de rico calado.
Fiestas y ferias: Domingo de Ramos, en el que hay concursos de cerámica purépecha y tejidos de palma, así como desfiles de grupos indígenas con música autóctona que se inician una semana antes; la Feria del Aguacate (4 al 10 de Junio).
Gastronomía: En el mercado de Antojitos podrá saborear platillos de toda la región con istalaciones higiénicas y precios accesibles. Hubicado a espaldas de la Huatapera.
Lagos y cascadas: El río Cupatitzio forma a su paso preciosas caídas de agua como la de El Gólgota y Flor de Lluvia y 10 km. después de la ciudad, la famosísima Tzaráracua.
Museos: Existe un importante museo de artesanías conocido como La Huatapera, lugar que originalmente fue asiento de la junta de caciques indígenas del pueblo.
Parques naturales: Parque Nacional Eduardo Ruiz donde nace el río Cupatitzio.
Pinturas y murales: En distintos puntos de la ciudad se encuentran pinturas importantes como de Alfrdo Zalce en la escuela Manuel Ocarnza, y el mural de Manuel Pérez.
Punto de interés: Esta hermosa ciudad debe su especial fisonomía al río Cupatitzio, en cuyos bordes hay numerosas huertas y deliciosos rincones naturales.

Information in English


Uruapan is a city and municipality in the west-central part of the Mexican state of Michoacán. The city is the municipal seat of the municipality. The town and surroundings are world famous, in part because of the great quantity of avocado farming and packaging, exported in large parts to the United States and other countries.
Uruapan is one of the oldest cities in Mexico. Its main natural attraction is the Cupatitzio River (dubbed "the river that sings"), because along its flow are tourist attractions. The National Park Barranca de Cupatitzio is home of "La Rodilla del Diablo", the head of the river, and extends out toward "La Tzaráracua" and "La Tzararacuita", waterfalls on the southern outskirts of the city. The Paricutín volcano emerged in the vicinity in 1943, scaring away much of the population. As of the 2005 census, the city of Uruapan's population was 238,975, while that of its municipality was 279,229. The municipality has an area of 954.17 km² (368.4 sq mi). The city and the municipality are both the second-largest in the state, behind only the state capital of Morelia.
Uruapan is served by Uruapan International Airport.
The word Uruapan comes from the Purépecha word ulhupani, meaning "place of eternal formation and fertility of flower buds." Uruapan, "place where the god-prince of flowers is reveered, was established before the arrival of the Spaniards and was an exuberant paradise and a peaceful chiefdom corresponding to the Purépecha King." Reséndiz 1991 said there are various interpretations of the meaning of Uruapan, for some meaning "water jug," for others it means "where the trees always give fruit." Others have determined it comes from the word urhuapani, meaning "blooming" or "sprouting." The place where everything flowers also translates to "where the hearts of plants bloom like the flowers and enjoy a perpetual spring."
Foundation
Due to unknown causes, the city of Uruapan has lost an important part of its historical material, making it difficult to know its past. There are some gaps in the time periods between one era and another; for example, there is hardly any information about the entire period of conquest.
Despite the lack of facts regarding Uruapan's history, people attribute its foundation to a Friar Juan de San Miguel; however, it is recognized that Purépecha Indians had already settled in these lands many years before the arrival of the Spanish.
An ethnic group with its own language, the Purépechas managed to have some military and political control, but in no way were the first nor only peoples in this region. When Friar Juan de San Miguel arrived in Uruapan in 1531, he found the place forsaken, but realized the adjacent areas were already inhabited by small families of Indian tribes like the Otomí, the Aztecs and other Nahuas, the Chichimecas, and the Chontal.
Around 1400, the triumvirate of chiefs from Pátzcuaro, Tzintzuntzan and Ihuatzio conquered and annexed Uruapan. At the arrival of the Spaniards and before the proceeding conquest by the Tarascan kingdom, the last calzonci (king), Tanganxuan II, found refuge in 1522 in what is today known as Uruapan, when fleeing the conquistador Cristóbal de Olid, according to historian Friar Pablo Beaumont.
Uruapan was a pre-Hispanic town inhabited mainly by the P'urhépecha Indians. Archeologists have found plenty of remains which are yet to be studied, with the exception of the Canvass of Jucutacato, found in the community of Jicalán. It is the oldest document related to the study of Michoacán's history.
Considering Friar Juan de San Miguel's arrival in 1531, there then exists a difference of 11 years, which clearly shows there were settlers already in these lands, before the arrival of who is thought to be the founder of Uruapan. In the Canvass of Jucutacato, Uruapan is mentioned as a point where the pilgrimage of the Nonoalcas took place.
Organization of the City
Friar Juan de San Miguel grouped and organized the people into barrios, which he founded under names of patron saints, each with their own chapel, choir, and school. These barrios were considered in autonomous communities, each with its own identity and customs. The founder of the town was especially interested in the inhabitants learning certain trades, among them craftwork.
The names of the barrios, clockwise from the northern part or Uruapan, are as follows: San Juan Bautista, San Miguel, San Francisco, La Magdalena, San Juan Evangelista, San Pedro y Santiago. In the downtown area, or center of town, there is the Barrio de la Trinidad and Los Riyitos in the Barrio de los Reyes.
Uruapan's city planning was subject to Spaniard urbanization norms, where streets flow from north to south and from east to west, and in the center of town are the government buildings and places of religious and social importance.
The chapels in the barrios were undoubtedly built under Spanish and Moorish influence. La Huatapera (hospital for Indians) is the architectural gemstone of greatest historical value for Uruapan, considered by some to be the first Hospital of América, although there are historical facts that contradict this point.
Founded in 1553 by Fray Juan de San Miguel, Uruapan today is a tranquil city of about 250,000 inhabitants. Located some 120 kilometers from Michoacan's capital, Morelia, Uruapan is accessible from that city via a new highway that passes through Patzcuaro in the nearby mountains.
The region is well known for it's agriculture - particularly the production of the finest avocados in the country. There are also extensive orchards of oranges and grapefruit in the Nueva Italia area to the south along Highway 37, and travelers on that route can often come across citrus stands on the side of the highway where sackfuls of these fruits can be purchased at very reasonable cost.
Though generally hot during the day, Uruapan's temperature can drop a fair bit in the evenings and early mornings. Prepare yourself with sweaters, jackets, socks and closed shoes for your stay in the area.
Sightseeing
In Town
PARQUE NACIONAL EDUARDO RUIZ (Rio Cupatitzio) - A park of splendid natural beauty, the Eduardo Ruiz National Park is named for a historian who wrote loving legends about the area.
The park follows the course of the Cupatitzio River which springs from the earth at the Rodilla del Diablo (Devil's Knee) at it's north end. Winding through cool, dense vegetation, past falls and around many fountains, the park also holds a trout tank and environmental education camp.
LA HUATAPERA
This structure, typical of colonial architecture of the area and situated on the square next to the Ex-Convent of San Francisco, was also founded by Fray Juan de San Miguel as a hospital. Today it houses the Museum of Popular Art.
LA CAPILLA DE LA MAGDALENA - Chapel of the Magdalene.
Built in the latter third of the 16th Century, in this Chapel are displayed a large 18th Century painting illustrating scenes from purgatory and the image of Saint Nicholas.