Tlaxcala



GENERAL INFORMATION
Tlaxcala (IPA: [tlaks'kala]) is a state in Mexico, located to the east of Mexico City.


Geography and features
Tlaxcala is bordered to the west by the state of México, to the northwest by Hidalgo, and to the north, east, and south by Puebla. The state consists of 60 municipalities.
It covers an area of 1,037 km² and is thus the smallest of Mexico's states. According to the 2005 census, Tlaxcala had a population of 1,068,207 (51.56% female, 48.44% male).
The state's main exports are textiles, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The current governor is Héctor Ortiz Ortiz, representing a PAN/PT alliance.


Cities
The state capital is the city of Tlaxcala, a small provincial center that reported a population of 15,777 in the 2005 census. The surrounding municipality of Tlaxcala reported a population of 83,748. The city was founded in 1520 by Hernán Cortés on the site of a pre-existing Native American settlement. It is located at 19.31° N, 98.24° W.
Also in the state of Tlaxcala are the cities of Apizaco, Calpulapán, Chiautempán, Huamantla, and the pre-Columbian ruins of Cacaxtla and Xochitécatl.


History
Tlaxcala was an independent nation in pre-Columbian times, never conquered by the Aztecs. The assistance of the Tlaxcalans was of instrumental importance to Cortés in his conquest of Mexico in the early 16th century.
Cortés arrived at Tlaxcala, a confederacy of about 200 towns with a rotating central government. Their main city was Tlaxcala. After almost a century of fighting the flower wars, a great deal of hate and bitterness had developed between the Tlaxcalans and the Aztecs. The Tlaxcalans knew that eventually the Aztecs would try to conquer them. It was just a matter of time before this tension developed into a real conflict. The Aztecs had already conquered much of the territory around Tlaxcala.
The Tlaxcalans initially greeted the Spanish with hostile action, as a defense of their territory, and the two sides fought a series of battles. The Tlaxcallans inflicted severe losses upon the Spaniards and could completely defeated them had they wished to. After several battles, a number of the Tlaxcalan leaders realized that they could use the Spanish as a proxy army to expand their military influence in the Valley of Mexico. An alliance was made. On September 18, 1519, Cortés arrived in Tlaxcala and was greeted with joy by the rulers, who already saw the Spanish as a tool to use against the Aztecs, and thus increase the Tlaxcallan fortunes. Due to a commercial blockade by the Aztecs, Tlaxcala was poor, lacking, among other things, both salt and cotton cloth, so they could only offer Cortés and his men food and women (as was the custom of alliances). Cortes stayed 20 days in Tlaxcala. It was there that he could appreciate for the first time the way of life of the inhabitants of Mesoamerica. Cortés seems to have won the true friendship of the old leaders of Tlaxcala, among them Maxixcatzín and Xicohténcatl the elder, although he could not win the heart of Xicohténcatl the Younger.
The Tlaxcallan rulers saw the Spaniards as a military tool to be used for their own political ambitions. For millenia in ancient Mexico, kingdoms had jockeyed for power through war and political alliances. The Tlaxcallans saw this as their opportunity to shift the center of power away from the Aztecs, and to expand their own kingdom. The Spaniards, in turn, saw the Tlaxcallans as a means to pursue their own ambitions for wealth. The Spaniards agreed to respect parts of the city, like the temples (but in the end, the Spaniards would destroy every single temple). The Spanish destruction of many religious statues caused dissent in the common Tlaxcallan population, but the rulers insisted on maintaining a military alliance.
All that time, Cortés offered to talk about the benefits of Christianity. Spanish legends say that he convinced the four leaders of Tlaxcala to become baptized. Maxixcatzín, Xicohténcatl the elder, Citalpopocatzín, and Temiloltécutl received the names of Don Lorenzo, Don Vicente, Don Bartolomé, and Don Gonzalo.
It's difficult to know if they understood the Catholic faith. In any event, they apparently had no problems in subordinating the new god "Dios" (in Spanish), the lord of the heavens, to their already complex pantheon.
An exchange of gifts was made and thus began the alliance between Cortés and Tlaxcala (Hugh Tomas, The conquest of Mexico, 1994).


Municipalities
Tlaxcala is subdivided into 60 municipalities. (municipios). See municipalities of Tlaxcala.


Major communities
Apizaco
Calpulalpán
Chiautempan
Huamantla
Tlaxcala (Tlaxcala de Xicohténcatl)
Villa Vicente Guerrero
Zacatelco


Informacion General
Tlaxcala (náhuatl: Tlaxcallan, "Lugar de la tortilla de maíz" )? es uno de los 31 Estados de México. En tiempos prehispánicos, Tlaxcala fue una de las naciones que logró mantener su independencia ante el Imperio Mexica. Hasta hoy sigue mostrando parte de su nacionalismo prehispánico. La ciudad colonial de Tlaxcala fue fundada sobre la prehispánica en 1520 por Hernán Cortés.
Sus principales actividades agrícolas son el cultivo de maíz, cebada, frijol, calabaza, tomate. Dentro de las principales exportaciones podemos encontrar reses para la explotación de carne, leche y toros de lidia; puercos, caballos, cabras, pollos, guajolotes y colmenas. En la actividad frutícola destacan los cultivos de durazno, manzana, pera y ciruelo.
La altitud media es de 2,230 msnm, dando como resultado un clima templado-subhúmedo en la parte cento-sur del estado, semifrío- subhúmedo al norte y frío en las cercanías del volcán Malintzin).


Localización y geografía
El estado se localiza en la parte centro-oriente del país entre las coordenadas 19º 44' y 19º 06' Norte y 97º 438' - 98º 46' Oeste. Limita en su mayor parte con Puebla al norte, este y sur, al oeste con el Estado de México y al noroeste con Hidalgo.


Altitud
La altitud más baja: 2,200 msnm. (en la cuenca del valle de Puebla-Tlaxcala), más alta 4,503 msnm (en la parte superior de la Malintzin. Coordenadas geográficas extremas: Al norte 19°44´, al sur 19°06´ de latitud norte; al este 97°38´, al norte 98° 43´ de longitud oeste.


Extensión
El Estado de Tlaxcala, cuenta con una superficie de 4 060.923 Kilómetros cuadrados, lo cual representa el 0.2 % del territorio nacional. Es la entidad federativa más pequeña, solo mayor que el Distrito Federal. Esta dividido en 6 distritos judiciales, 60 municipios, con 794 localidades.


Ciudades importantes
Apizaco
Calpulalpan
Huamantla
Santa Ana Chiautempan
Tlaxcala de Xicohténcatl
Zacatelco
Contla de Juan Cuamatzi


Municipos con mayor poblacion
Tlaxco
Tepetitla de Lardizabal
Tlaxco
Contla de Juan Cuamatzi
Zacatelco
Huamantla
Apizaco
Santa Ana Chiautempan
Nativitas
Ixtacuixtla


Municipios
Tlaxcala cuenta con 60 municipios, de Agosto de 1995 a Octubre del mismo año se crearon 16 nuevos municipios.


Orografía
Su topografía es montañosa. Tiene grandes llanos, cortados por cañadas y barrancas, y altos volcanes como la Malintzin en su parte sur, que se eleva hasta alcanzar 4 640 metros sobre el nivel del mar. Tlaxcala se encuentra en la región del Eje Neovolcánico, que atraviesa como un cinturón la parte central de México, de oriente a poniente hasta alcanzar el mar por ambos lados. En el paisaje se distinguen volcanes y sierras volcánicas de todos tipos y tamaños, llanos extensos que una vez fueron lagos acorralados entre montañas y bosques, pastizales y matorrales de clima templado que es el que goza Tlaxcala.


Hidrografía
El Estado de Tlaxcala por sus condiciones geográficas, se ubica en tres regiones hidrológicas: Cuenca del Río Balsas, Río Atoyac (78.76%), Cuenca del Río Pánuco, Río Moctezuma (18.21%) y Cuenca de Tuxpan- Nautla, Río Tecolutla (3.03%). El principal Río del Estado de Tlaxcala es el Zahuapan, cuerpo de agua que recorre de norte a sur pasando por el centro del estado y se une al Río Atoyac. Desafortunadamente, se encuentra contaminado y en vias de extinción.