The Zoques set up a town in present day Tuxtla Gutirrez in roughly 1240, calling it Coyatocm,.
In the late 14th century, the Aztecs gave it the name of Tochtln. In the colonial time, the Spanish called it Tusta and it was merely a rest village before continuing to Chiapa de los Indios ( today called the Chiapa de Corzo ). In latter 18th century, the Zoques incited a rebellion in Tusta in which they rubbed out the mayor, the Spanish governor, and their Zoque governor, and also ransacked and burned numerous residences, because their mayor, Don Manuel Maesterra y Atocha, had abused his power against them and the genuine Audiencia de Guatemala had done small about it regardless of the grouses. On twenty Feb 1762, the city was officially named San Marcos Tuxtla.
On nineteen June 1768, Chiapas was split into 2 major municipalities : Tuxtla, which had jurisdiction in the Zoque and Chiapa areas, and Ciudad Real now San Cristbal de las Casas which had jurisdiction in the remainder of the province.
In 1790, the municipalities of Ciudad Real and Tusta along with the province of Soconusco made up the Intendencia de Chiapas, the capital of which was found in Ciudad Real, with subdelegates in Tuxtla, Comitn, and Soconusco.
On 29 October 1813, Tuxtla was given city standing. On twenty-seven July 1829 it changed into a town by decree of the Chiapas state Congress.
In 1833, Governor Joaqun Miguel Gutirrez moved the seat of state power to Tuxtla. It was returned to San Cristbal on 31 May 1848 by Governor Nicols Ruiz Maldonado, who, on the same day, modified the name of the town to Tuxtla Gutirrez in honor of Joaqun Gutirrez.
In 1858, there had been an armed rebellion in favor of the Plan de Ayutla which returned powers to Tuxtla for a year, after which they returned to San Cristbal. In 1892, Governor Emilio Rabasa, moved these powers for the 3rd and last time to Tuxtla. In 1911, inhabitants of San Cristbal, in coalition with the Chamulas, staged an armed rebellion against Tuxtla to reclaim its previous standing as state capital, but the attempt failed. In the 1940s, the development of the Pan-American Road facilitated communication with Mexico Town and internal relations and commerce. In the 1950s a drainage system was installed, concrete roads were paved, numerous colleges were assembled, and the Chiapas jail was situated in Cerro Hueco ( since moved ). In the 1960s, there were roughly 45,000 folks living in Tuxtla. The main roads were expanded, and expansion commenced outside the town correct. The 1st non-public home housing estates and the first government-funded home neighbourhoods for urban workers started to appear. The bulk of the working class was dedicated to farming, teaching, and commerce, with the bulk of foreign investment in the latter. Since the 1970s, the town of Tuxtla has grown much more.
Thanks to the creation of the Chicoasn hydroelectric power plant, a lot of employees established themselves in the town and after some years the bulk of them stayed as permanent residents. The population of this town has grown at a dizzying pace beginning from the rise of the executive decentralization of Mexico and the rise of development help to Chiapas, essentially exploding following the armed rebellion of the Zapatista terrorists in the northeast part of the stateparticularly, the EZLN.
Tuxtla Gutiérrez is a municipality and the capital city of the Mexican state of Chiapas. It is the seat of the local public administration, the local authorities, and of the federal government delegations in the state. It covers more than 40% of the municipal territory, and continues to grow.
Tuxtla Gutiérrez is the capital of and the largest city in the state of Chiapas in South Mexico. It is the cultural centre of the state and earns the second highest revenue in the state.
Due to its geographical location, it was made the capital in 1892. Tuxtla Gutierrez today acts as the main gateway to Chiapas for tourists and is often used by companies and governmental organizations to hold conferences and meetings.
The climate is warm and humid all-year-round. The annual average temperature is around 25°C. Travel can be avoided between March and May, when temperatures can escalate up to 37°C.
Tuxtla Gutiérrez was once a Spanish colony, prior to which several Indian tribes settled here, offering this city an eclectic mix of people. With a population of 567,000, the locals are mainly engaged in commerce and industry.
Carnaval Tuxtla, Carnaval Zoque, Fiesta de San Roque, Fiesta del Niño de Atocha, Celebración a San Felipe de Jesús, Fiesta de San José, Feria de San Marcos, Fiesta de La Santa Cruz, Fiesta de San Isidro, Fiesta de Dolores, Fiesta a las Vírgenes de Copoya, Fiesta a San Antonio de Padua, Fiesta a San Francisco, Fiesta del Señor del Calvario, Fiesta a San Martín de Porres, Celebración del Barrio del Cerrito, Feria Chiapas.
Birthday and saint's day "coronations," cura de azar, cura de antojo, cura de ojo, cura de espanto, procession of the Lord of Esquipulas, festival of the last roof tile, la boda zoque, buñuelos of Holy Week, Christmas pancakes, tamales con jocote of La Santa Cruz, quebrada de sandía el Sábado de Ramos, tejocotes and pumpkin compote of Day of the Dead.
During the Fair of San Marcos and Guadalupe, certain festive soups with vermicelli are in demand. Along with the soups comes bread containing olives, raisins, or plums, slices of hard-boiled egg, slices of fried plantain, and/or almonds.
Pepita con tasajo (pumpkin seeds with salted meat), sopa de chipilín (chipilín soup), chipilín con bolita (chipilin with armadillo), cochito horneado (roast pork), frijoles con chipilín y puerco con chirmol (beans, chipilin, and pork with chirmol salsa), estofado (stew), chanfaina (savory fricasee), chicharrones con patashete y huevo en pipián (cracklin's/burnt ends with ...), zispolá (chicken cooked with white chillis, cabbage leaves, and garbanzo beans), pux-xaxé (tripe with tomato and masa mole), sopa de pan (bread soup), and sopa de fideos (soup with vermicelli), with various ingredients added.
Tostada tuxtleca, tamal de chipilin, tamal de bola, tamal de mole, tamal de verduras, Tamal de picadillo, tamal de cambray, tamal de toro pinto and picte de elote.
Agua de chía, agua de tamarindo, tepache, taxcalate, pozol de cacao, pozol blanco, atole agrio, atole de elote, atole tashiagual, champurrado, pinole y, horchata con semillas de melón y canela.
Puxinú, suspiro, nuégado, chimbo, garbanzo, gaznate, tortadita, empanizado, yumí cocido, coyol candie, jocote candie, cupapé candie, mango jam, mezquite candie, guanabana jam, chilacayote candie, pumpkin jam, dulce de pepita de calabaza y miel de panela, hostia, oblea de mejido, melcocha de cacahuate y caramelo de panela.
Ancient local legends
The Sombreroman, the Tisihua, the little baby, the Chepa's cave, the Firesow, the St. Pascual's small cart.
The city lies inside the Depression of Chiapas, between the Tuxtla valley on the Northeast, Meseta de Copoya on the South, Mount Mactumatza on the Southwest and the mountain range on the North which includes Animas, Don Ventura and the Sumidero, which includes the National Park with the same name.
The valley begins on the border at the city of Berriozabal and continues until the Rio Grande. The valley is at an altitude of 540 m. A large part of the city of Tuxtla Gutiérrez lies in this valley, while the rest lies over the northern mountain range.
The climate of the municipality changed during the 1970s, after the filling of dams in the center of Chiapas, especially the Nezahualcóyotl, to power hydroelectric plants. The water held back by these dams cools the surrounding atmosphere and increases wind intensity, which blows from Northwest to Southeast with an average speed of 2.4 km/h, reaching its peak intensity between October and December
Urbanization has caused a rise in temperature, as concrete areas and internal combustion gas emission increase. Currently, the hottest months are March, April and May, with temperatures up to 36 °C, and the coldest months are November, December and January, with temperatures as low as 8 °C.
The normal rainy season begins in early May and can last until early October. The average annual precipitation is 940 mm.
The climate varies within the municipality; in the suburban neighborhoods El Jobo and Copoya (still considered associative), and the El Zapotal and Cerro Hueco mountains the climate is cool and pleasant all year long due to the abundant vegetation, its greater altitude, and its environmental humidity.
Economy and politics
Because of its geographical location, Tuxtla Gutiérrez has been the permanent seat of Plan Puebla Panama (PPP) since the establishment of the Mecanismo de Diálogo y Concertación de Tuxtla, agreed by the heads of state of the governments of Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama prior to the initial round of meetings in the Mesoamerican Poliforum in 2001.
Its economic activity depends on the governmental spending and on the consumption of the local bureaucracy. Tuxtla Gutiérrez has few industries, though it does have a growing commerce of goods. It has the second largest economic revenue in the state, after Tapachula.
Its most dynamic industry is construction which is still rising.
Education and culture
The city contains various universities, the main of which are in the far west and are:
Instituto Tecnologico de Tuxtla Gutierrez
ITESM (Chiapas Campus).
Autonomous University of Chiapas (seated in Tuxtla).
Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Chiapas
The main public library is the public university's library (UNACH) followed by theCentro Cultural Jaime Sabines. The city contains two large theaters, the Emilio Rabasa and the Poliforum, in front of the convention center.
There is no real artistic development in Tuxtla; the only theatrical works are of local significance. These works include the comedies Bienvenido Conde Drácula, Don Camilo, and El Tenorio Chiapaneco, which are staged annually. These plays preserve the traditional idiosyncrasy of Tuxtla that has, as a result of urbanization, almost disappeared. Additionally, they include in their dialogues recent trivialities regarding the media.
To the North, the Cerro de las Ánimas (Hill of the Sprits), a prolongation of the central Chiapas mountain range, which at its eastern border reaches a height of 1400 m, creating the Cañón del Sumidero (Sumidero Canyon).
To the East, the county extends towards the Río Grande (not to be confused with the Rio Grande that separates Mexico on its border with the United States), better known as the Grijalva River. The river forms a natural limit with the municipality of Chiapa de Corzo.
To the South, the Meseta de Copoya (Mesa of Copoya), whosse height rises from East to West, where it culminates on Cerro Mactumatzá (Mactumatzá Hill), at a height of 1600 m. The center of the mesa has a height of between 800 m and 900 m, and in which the towns of El Jobo and Copoya are located.
To the West, the Valle de Tuxtla (Valley of Tuxtla) extends until it disappears in the hills and heights of the municipalities of Ocozocuautla y Berriozabal.
All heights are in metres above sea level (m).
To the East flows the Río Grande (a section of the Grijalva River, not to be confused with the Rio Grande which forms the border berween the US and Mexico). To the South flows the Suchiapa River, natural limit with the homonym municipality. Neither of the rivers are important to municipality's hydrological network.
The most important stream of the municipality is the Río Sabinal, which originates in the municipality of Berriozabal; it flows through the central valley of Tuxtla, passes the city and merges with the Río Grande. The official plan of Tuxtla Gutiérrez, of 1982, showed that the Sabinal was fed by 7 streams but, due to the growth of the city, they are now dry. The treams that fed it included the Chacon and Poti to the city's north, and the San Roque to the south, but all of these have now disappeared. The Sabinal was the natural border of the small city of Tuxtla, but in the 1960s, urban areas proliferated on both sides of the river that since then has received massive drains, and it is now part of that system.
The municipality now supplies itself with drinkable water originating in the Río Santo Domingo in the municipality of Chiapa de Corzo, by means of pumps and storage tanks, but at a very high cost. Other suppliers of water are the aquifers in the municipality of Tuxtla and the artesian wells excavated to hundreds of meters of the Sabinal whose drinkability is questionable, although its water is consumed.
The city of Tuxtla Gutiérrez is the seat of the Primera División de México soccer club, Jaguares de Chiapas, whose stadium is the Victor Manuel Reyna.
A NASCAR-sanctioned racetrack was opened in October 2008. The Autódromo Chiapas is a 0.75-mile oval with up to 14 degrees of banking. The track hosted Round 13 of the NASCAR Corona Series on October 12, 2008, in front of more than 15,000 spectators.
Due to the growing populations during the last part of the 20th century, many native species have disappeared and others are already endangered. The mountains Cerro Hueco, El Zapotal, the plateaus, and del Sumidero sobre el cañón, are green areas protected against deforestation. Although the majority of the municipal territory is green areas, the gradual expansion of the city has seized much land. The Montecriso disappeared, deforested, some time ago.
Species include flowers: Sospó (Pseudobombax ellipticum) (almost vanished); medicinal herbs: Sosa (Solanum Torum), Hierba del Pollo (Commelina sp) and Matilisguate (Tabebuia rosea); naturalized trees: Flamboyant tree, blue Jacaranda , Laurel of India (Ficus nítida) and Cuban Royal Palm (Roystonea regia).
Sumidero Canyon Ecological Preserve
Places of interest
ZOOMAT (Miguel Álvarez del Toro Zoo)
The Marimba Square
Cathedral of San Marcos
Museums and galleries
Anthropology and History Museum
Parks and gardens
The Botanical Garden
National Park of Canyon Sumidero (outside the city)
The city includes three large malls: Plaza Cristal, Galerias Boulevard and Plaza del Sol' are adjacent from one another; they are situated to the far west), another growing mall like facility is Plaza Poliforum (located to the far east).
The city also contains four multiplex cinemas, one each in the three large shopping centers.
The most numerous means of public transportation are short buses and minibuses (commonly referred to as 'colectivos'), typically modified VW Transporter and Ford Transit vehicles. No railroad lines service the municipality, increasing the cost of shipping to or from the area. Tuxtla is connected to the country by a network of federal roads and an expressway that connects it to Mexico City, some ten hours away. An expressway connecting Tuxtla to San Cristóbal de las Casas was completed in 2006.
Interstate buslines that arrive in Tuxtla are: Ómnibus Cristóbal Colón (OCC), ADO-GL (both of which originate in Tuxtla), Autobuses UNO, Rápidos del Sur (RS) and TRF. Tuxtla is well connected to the rest of Mexico, and has daily national departures, and frequent departures to San Cristóbal de las Casas. A new dedicated bus terminus is under construction in the west part of town.
A new national airport, which opened in 2006 was built 45 minutes east of town. There is currently no public transportation between the airport and the town, but this is subject to change. Previously, the national airport Llano San Juan, located in the town of Berriozábal was in operation, but due to recurring adverse weather conditions, the new airport was built to ensure more timely arrivals and departures.
Trapped by provoking mountains and coated with colorful trees, this town appears like the perfect setting for the closure of a crucial deal, and for an exciting journey filled holiday.
Tuxtla Gutierrez features modern services and a prospering hotel industry that may definitely meet, if not exceed your expectancies.
Tuxtla is a mix of old and new, with an ideal blend of standard design and a young fast growing population, who have modernised the city yet still managed to maintain customs, legends and rituals harking back to Old Tuxtla. The neighbors are extremely courteous, friendly folk and treat visitors as if they were their long term buddies. They are awfully hospitable, always eager to inform the tale of Tuxtla to anybody ready to listen, and will certainly make you feel at home. The town was originally inhabited and set up by a clan local to the area, called the Zoques who named the town Coyatoc, meaning 'home of the rabbit' in their local tongue.
Between 1486 and 1505, they were attacked by the Aztecs and the town was re-named 'Tochtlan' implying the same in Nahuatl. After the Spanish conquest, the name was interpreted into Spanish and became 'Tuxtla', as it remains to this day.
In 1768 Tuxtla had the second most critical city hall in Chiapas. It officially changed into a city in 1813 and eventually a town in 1829. Later, 'Gutierrez' was added to the name in respect of Joaquin Miguel Gutierrez, a notable federalist born in the town and who died heroically in combat against the Central Conservatives. Chiapas is a synonym for marimba music, dance, and a prospering culture.
Practices which have been saved to this day can be appreciated thru the colours and tastes of their plenty of parties and holidays, that the neighbors are terribly proud of and like to share with countrywide and world travellers alike. Across the state of Chiapas there are countless celebrations, holidays, and carnivals all year round, and Tuxtla isn't an exception.
Jan is the time for the holiday of 'the seated Baby Jesus', a spiritual ritual where folk sing and chant to an idol representing Jesus as a baby, who is seated in a little chair and dressed in intricate fine clothing. In June they hold the World Holiday of Marimba Players, where musicians from different nations meet and play their xylophones together. In Sep , they have an 4th July party lasts a few days. And in Nov there's another three-day vacation that starts with a party on 'All Saints Day', followed by the 'Day of the Dead' and eventually ends on the moment when the state fair starts. Ultimately , they have the Yuletide festivities, which include Christmas' Eve and New Year's Eve, carried out in a definite "Chiapaneco" style, different to any other place in Mexico. Tuxtla Gutierrez has so much to supply travellers that the single thing visitors lack is time to see and do everything.